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 Early Years: 1891–1914

William Taussig Scott and Martin X. Moleski

in Michael Polanyi: Scientist and Philosopher

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195174335
eISBN:
9780199835706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019517433X.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Michael Polanyi was born in Budapest on March 11, 1891 to Mihály Pollacsek and Cecile Wohl, the fifth of their six children. This chapter describes Polanyi's family and cultural heritage, his ... More


SOFT MATTER

Vinod K. Wadhawan

in Smart Structures: Blurring the Distinction Between the Living and the Nonliving

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199229178
eISBN:
9780191711282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229178.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Soft matter is inherently nonlinear stuff, this is partly because of the pre-eminent role played by the hydrogen bond and the hydrophobic interaction in the processes involving soft materials. The ... More


MATTER IN DISPERSION

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses dispersed matter. Topics covered include disperse phases, stabilization of disperse systems, the Gibbs relation, adsorption isotherms, surface films of sparingly soluble ... More


REPRINT THE TRANSMISSION OF STRESS IN AN AGGREGATE

S. F. Edwards and R. B. S. Oakeshott

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This paper considers the question of how stress is transmitted in aggregates. The macroscopic state of a powder is summarized by its compactivity X ≡ (∂ V/∂S). In aggregates where the particles have ... More


A SCIENTIST FOR ALL SEASONS

Sir Geoffrey Allen and F.R.S. F.R. Eng.

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes the history of Sam Edwards within polymer physics from the early days of his exposure, through his insights in seeing what is important, bringing key new insights, inspiring ... More


Soft Matter Physics

Masao Doi

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199652952
eISBN:
9780191774942
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652952.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Soft matter represents a collection of materials such as polymer, colloids, surfactants, and liquid crystals and their composites. These materials do not belong to conventional classes of materials ... More


Recent Developments And Related Areas

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter discusses the interfaces between physics, chemistry, and other areas of study of the properties of lyotropic liquid crystals. It also considers interdisciplinary connections, in ... More


DIFFUSION PHENOMENA

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses several configuration space aspects of Brownian motion, in particular, problems related to diffusion. The Smoluchowski theory of diffusion controlled chemical reactions is ... More


Basic X-Ray Scattering for Soft Matter

Wim H. de Jeu

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780198728665
eISBN:
9780191795442
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728665.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in the field, typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Often ... More


Glassy dynamics and dynamical heterogeneity in colloids

Luca Cipelletti and Eric R. Weeks

in Dynamical Heterogeneities in Glasses, Colloids, and Granular Media

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199691470
eISBN:
9780191729799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691470.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Concentrated colloidal suspensions are a well‐tested model system which has a glass transition. Colloids are suspensions of small solid particles in a liquid, and exhibit glassy behaviour when the ... More


Microrheology

Eric M. Furst and Todd M. Squires

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199655205
eISBN:
9780191748004
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199655205.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

We present a comprehensive overview of microrheology, emphasizing the underlying theory, practical aspects of its implementation, and current applications to rheological studies in academic and ... More


The Colloidal Chemistry of Oxides

Bruce C. Bunker and William H. Casey

in The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199384259
eISBN:
9780197562987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199384259.003.0014
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Colloids are defined as suspensions of finely divided particles in a continuous medium that do not settle rapidly and are not readily filtered. To be more ... More


Modeling Overview

Craig M. Bethke

in Title Pages

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

A model is a simplified version of reality that is useful as a tool. A successful model strikes a balance between realism and practicality. Properly constructed, a ... More


Surface Charge

X. N. Zhang and A. Z. Zhao

in Chemistry of Variable Charge Soils

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097450
eISBN:
9780197560846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097450.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

The surface of soil colloids carries electric charges, and these surface charges are the basic cause for soil to possess a series of surface properties. Soil surface ... More


Equilibrium Models of Natural Waters

Craig M. Bethke

in Geochemical Reaction Modeling: Concepts and Applications

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Having derived a set of equations describing the equilibrium state of a multicomponent system and devised a scheme for solving them, we can begin to model the ... More


Acid Drainage

Craig M. Bethke

in Geochemical Reaction Modeling: Concepts and Applications

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0027
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Acid drainage is a persistent environmental problem in many mineralized areas. The problem is especially pronounced in areas that host or have hosted mining activity ... More


Solutions: Storyboarding a Humid Zone

Paul Carter

in Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824832469
eISBN:
9780824868949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824832469.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

This chapter focuses on Solution, a public spaces strategy developed for a site in Melbourne's Docklands. Victoria Harbour is the result of draining a swamp and redirecting the course of a river. ... More


Introduction

Eric M. Furst and Todd M. Squires

in Microrheology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199655205
eISBN:
9780191748004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199655205.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

General concepts of rheology and microrheology are presented, including basic concepts of the microrheology measurement, the characteristics of soft materials, rheological functions and principles of ... More


Lighten Up!: The Role of Gases in the Culinary Experience

Matt Golding

in The Kitchen as Laboratory: Reflections on the Science of Food and Cooking

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153454
eISBN:
9780231526920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153454.003.0015
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter explains how something as nebulous as air or gas can be contained and structured so that it lends texture to food. The answer is through the creation of foams. Foams are a class of ... More


Dielectric Properties of Polyelectrolytes and Lipid Vesicles

Federico Bordi and Stefano Sarti

in Dielectric Relaxation in Biological Systems: Physical Principles, Methods, and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199686513
eISBN:
9780191766398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter aims to demonstrate the application of dielectric spectroscopy to aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions and to mixed polyelectrolyte–colloid solutions, showing what kind of information, at a ... More


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