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Diversity of Cohort Studies

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.10
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The previous chapter described a prospective population cohort study as a prototype. By modifying one or another element of this prototype, this chapter constructs natural experiments, historical ... More


Prototypical Cohort Study

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cohort studies compare individuals exposed and unexposed to a hypothesized risk factor, and the respective proportions who develop the disease over a specified period of time. This chapter introduces ... More


Case-control and cohort studies in the age of genome-wide associations

Teri Manolio

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Environmental modifiers of the effects of genetic variants, or gene-environment interactions, have received increased attention in recent years due to the recognition that genetic variants alone are ... More


Cohort Studies

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cohort studies of occupational populations generally provide the most comprehensive approach for evaluating overall patterns of health and disease. This chapter describes the design features of ... More


Study design

Jørn Olsen and Olga Basso

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiology is defined by its objective: to study determinants of diseases and ill health in human populations. To do so, epidemiologists use experimental and non-experimental methods. This chapter ... More


Logic of the Case-Control Design

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter explains the logic of the case-control strategy. It shows how to conceptualize a case-control study as a condensed version of a cohort study. This relationship between the two designs is ... More


Unequal Attrition under Different Types of Follow-Up

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.13
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a framework for the prevention and control of bias due to unequal attrition in cohort studies. Like the effects of third-variable confounding, the effects of unequal attrition ... More


Genetic Association Studies

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.29
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on genetic association studies. The goal of genetic association studies is to investigate the effects of genotypic variation on disease risk. These designs are built on a concept ... More


The great studies of smoking and disease in the twentieth century

Michael J. Thun and S. J. Henley

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the contributions of several large prospective studies conducted over the second half of the 20th century to our understanding of the health hazards of tobacco use. Beginning in ... More


Overview of Study Designs

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The choice of epidemiologic study design is largely dictated by the health outcomes of primary interest, feasibility, and availability of valid exposure data. This chapter provides brief descriptions ... More


Study Designs

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes different risk factor study designs. Study designs can be viewed as techniques for organizing observations in ways that can reveal the causes of disease. The risk factor study ... More


Causal Inference: A Thought Experiment

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.11
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A cohort study is always a kind of ‘thought experiment’. One needs to imagine what results ‘would have been’ if the exposed and the unexposed groups had in fact been fully comparable. This chapter ... More


Cohort Studies

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses cohort studies. Topics covered include cohort identification, methods of ascertainment of exposure status, estimating the expected occurrence of disease among “exposed” cohort ... More


Differential Misclassification

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.14
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses misclassification of the disease that is linked to the exposure, that is, misclassification of disease that is unequal for the exposed and the unexposed groups. This is the ... More


14. Cohort studies

Michael L. Burr

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cohort studies follow a group of individuals over time to identify changes in status (such as disease or mortality) and relate these to observations made at baseline. They can also be carried out ... More


Study Design, Measures of Effect, and Sources of Bias

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.02
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the principles of research study design. It provides an in-depth description of commonly used study designs to address research objectives. It presents information about study ... More


The Arsenal of Observational Methods in Epidemiology: Classical Designs, the Fourfold Table, Cohort and Case-Control Studies

Mervyn Susser and Zena Stein

in Eras in Epidemiology: The Evolution of Ideas

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195300666
eISBN:
9780199863754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300666.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on observational methods in epidemiology. It presents a fourfold table that serves in field studies to test the precision of measures, either of exposure or of outcome, and in ... More


Design of life course studies of healthy ageing

Rebecca Hardy, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, and Scott Hofer

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Many life course hypotheses can only be addressed using observational studies which follow the same individuals through time, and a birth cohort is perhaps the ideal study in which to investigate ... More


Selection Bias in Cohort Studies

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiologic studies make comparisons between two or more groups to draw inferences about possible causal relations between some attribute that may affect health, generically termed exposure, and ... More


A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Yoav Ben-Shlomo

Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper, Rebecca Hardy, and Marcus Richards (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book offers an interdisciplinary and life course approach to the study of healthy ageing, harnessing the power of cohort studies that follow people through their lives. Healthy ageing is the ... More


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