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Relations between Age and Cognitive Functioning

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the purpose of this book, which is to summarize some of the robust and replicated research findings concerned with the effects of aging on cognitive ... More


Approaches to Investigating Cognitive Aging

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers how sources of hypotheses for the locus of age differences in cognition have often been based on models and metaphors in cognitive psychology. It considers the primary ways in ... More


Role of Dopamine Systems in Cognitive Aging

Lars Bäckman and Lars Farde

in Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging: Linking cognitive and cerebral aging

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195156744
eISBN:
9780199864171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156744.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

This chapter reviews literature on the influence of age-related changes in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system on age-related cognitive changes. The chapter is organized as follows: first, it ... More


Mediators and Moderators of Cognitive Aging

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses two analytical procedures — mediation and moderation — which can be informative about potential causes of age-cognition relations. Both are based on the principle that although ... More


The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance

Anders Sandberg, Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Cognitive performance of the participants has crucial significance for legal trials, sometimes making the difference between fair and unfair verdicts. Jury members are expected to passively listen to ... More


Intraindividual variability in performance as a theoretical window onto cognitive aging

David F. Hultsch and Stuart W. S. MacDonald

in New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525691
eISBN:
9780191689369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525691.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter makes a case for considering intraindividual differences in performance across tasks (dispersion) and intraindividual variability across occasions (inconsistency), in addition to mean ... More


The Role of Recess in Primary School

ANTHONY D. PELLEGRINI and ROBYN M. HOLMES

in Play = Learning: How Play Motivates and Enhances Children's Cognitive and Social-Emotional Growth

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195304381
eISBN:
9780199894321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304381.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Clinical Child Psychology / School Psychology

Children's opportunities for free time (in the form of recess) and corresponding opportunities to interact with their peers have been eliminated or diminished in many school systems across the United ... More


Health, disease, and cognitive functioning in old age

Åke Wahlin

in New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525691
eISBN:
9780191689369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525691.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The accumulation of multiple chronic illnesses with advancing age is well established, and characterizes a significant proportion of the elderly population. This chapter discusses how this is ... More


Brain Activation Studies in Parkinson’s Disease

L. K. Prashanth and Antonio P. Strafella

in Imaging in Parkinson’s Disease

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393484
eISBN:
9780199914494
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393484.003.0060
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System, Techniques

This chapter provides an overview of brain activation studies of the pathophysiology of the motor, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Discussion focuses on activation ... More


The Early Development of Executive Functions

Adele Diamond

in Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169539
eISBN:
9780199847204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Executive function, also known as cognitive control or supervisory attention, is required whenever going “on automatic”. Classes of situations in which executive functions are required include novel ... More


Effects of Treatment: Pharmacologic

Alain Dagher

in Imaging in Parkinson’s Disease

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393484
eISBN:
9780199914494
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393484.003.0100
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System, Techniques

Pharmacological therapy to augment dopamine neurotransmission, either with levodopa or a dopamine agonist, relieves the motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease (PD) consistently and rapidly. However, ... More


Exploring the relationships between sensory, physiological, genetic and health measures in relation to the common cause hypothesis

Helen Christensen and Andrew Mackinnon

in New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525691
eISBN:
9780191689369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525691.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Performance on speeded tasks and general ability tests is known to decline from relatively early in life. Sensory, respiratory, cardiovascular, muscular, and skeletal functioning also deteriorates, ... More


Conclusions from the Study of Gender Differences in Cognition

John T. E. Richardson

in Gender Differences in Human Cognition

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195112917
eISBN:
9780199846900
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195112917.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses the kinds of analytic techniques that have led to conclusions concerning differences in the cognitive performance of men and women. It begins with a description of the ... More


On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control

Fergus I. M. Craik

in Measuring the Mind: Speed, control, and age

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566427
eISBN:
9780191693588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566427.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive abilities depend on the brain, which becomes less efficient as people age. This chapter notes two major factors that make the picture less negative. The first is that age-related declines ... More


Representation and Aging

Deborah M. Burke

in Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169539
eISBN:
9780199847204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Older adults show declines in the ability to create new representations. This aging pattern provides the foundation for theories of adult development that postulate two distinct components of ... More


The aging brain: Structural changes and their implications for cognitive aging

Naftali Raz

in New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525691
eISBN:
9780191689369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525691.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews volumetric studies of age-related differences in the human brain observed in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and presents several examples of their impact on ... More


Individuals using music

Eric Clarke, Nicola Dibben, and Stephanie Pitts

in Music and mind in everyday life

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525578
eISBN:
9780191689352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525578.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology

Music enhances human life and helps people achieve personal fulfilment, peak experience, flow, and self-actualization. It narrows an individual's attention, allowing a more focused attention and ... More


Defining Contexts of Neurocognitive (Performance) Enhancements: Neuroethical Considerations and Implications for Policy

John R. Shook and James Giordano

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

There may be no such a thing as a generic enhancement to cognitive performance. Cultural inheritance, group socialization, personal values, and physiological factors are necessarily involved when ... More


Physical and cognitive performance

Benedetti Fabrizio

in Placebo Effects: 2nd Edition: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198705086
eISBN:
9780191789151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705086.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

In spite of the fact that very different experimental conditions have been investigated, all available data indicate athletes’ expectations as important elements of physical performance. There is ... More


Noise and Children's Development

Moore Colleen F.

in Silent Scourge: Children, Pollution, and Why Scientists Disagree

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195153910
eISBN:
9780199846986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153910.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter examines the negative impact of noise or noise pollution on children's intellectual development. It explains the two main categories of the nonauditory effects of noise in children. ... More


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