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Evolution

Edward Stein

in Without Good Reason: The Rationality Debate in Philosophy and Cognitive Science

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198237730
eISBN:
9780191679520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198237730.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines arguments saying that the rationality thesis is an empirical truth. The general argument, based on evolutionary theory, is initially quite appealing, and many philosophers have ... More


 Explaining Distributions of Spirit Concepts and Spirit Possession

Emma Cohen

in The Mind Possessed: The Cognition of Spirit Possession in an Afro-Brazilian Religious Tradition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195323351
eISBN:
9780199785575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323351.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

Chapter 9 tackles questions concerning the apparently variable distribution and relevance of spirit concepts and possession (e.g. the high degree of women's participation relative to men's ... More


The Role of Psychology in an Agent-Centered Theory of Science

Ronald N. Giere

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

The question that frames this chapter is how humans have managed to learn such amazing things as the age of the universe. After briefly reviewing logical, methodological, historical, and social ... More


The Role of Racial Markers in Race Perception and Racial Categorization

Otto H. MacLin and M. Kimberly MacLin

in The Science of Social Vision

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter argues that race is so important socially, that a special cognitive mechanism sensitive to race via racial markers has been selected out through adaptive pressures within the ... More


Philosophical Thought Experiments, Intuitions, and Cognitive Equilibrium

Tamar Szabó Gendler

in Intuition, Imagination, and Philosophical Methodology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199589760
eISBN:
9780191595486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589760.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Drawing on literature from the dual‐processing tradition in psychology, the chapter tries to explain why contemplation of an imaginary particular may have cognitive and motivational effects that ... More


Advancing the comparative study of linguistic and musical syntactic processing

Aniruddh D. Patel

in Language and Music as Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199553426
eISBN:
9780191731020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199553426.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a response to the commentaries in Chapters 23–25. It discusses the importance of specifying cognitive mechanisms, the importance of advanced neuroimaging techniques, and the ... More


Music and Pain: Evidence from Experimental Perspectives

Laura Mitchell and Raymond MacDonald

in Music, Health, and Wellbeing

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199586974
eISBN:
9780191738357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586974.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter highlights the experimental evidence supporting the efficacy of music for pain relief and for the cognitive and emotional mechanisms underpinning it. Although it is clear that induced ... More


Bayesian brains and cognitive mechanisms:: Harmony or dissonance?

Henry Brighton and Gerd Gigerenzer

in The Probabilistic Mind:: Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199216093
eISBN:
9780191695971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216093.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter considers the project of probabilistic rational analysis in relation to a particularly well-studied and simple heuristic, the Take the Best algorithm. The authors relate the tension ... More


Broca's Region

Yosef Grodzinsky and Katrin Amunts (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195177640
eISBN:
9780199864799
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177640.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Broca's region has been in the news ever since scientists realized that particular cognitive functions could be localized to parts of the cerebral cortex. Its discoverer, Paul Broca, was one of the ... More


Neuroimaging as a Tool for Functionally Decomposing Cognitive Processes

William Bechtel and Richard C. Richardson

in Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014021
eISBN:
9780262265850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014021.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter describes neuroimaging as a tool for functionally decomposing cognitive processes. It looks into neuroimaging’s contribution to understanding and explaining cognitive mechanisms, and ... More


Response to target article ‘Language, music, and the brain: a resource-sharing framework’

Stefan Koelsch

in Language and Music as Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199553426
eISBN:
9780191731020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199553426.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter comments on the discussion in Chapter 22. Although it largely agrees with the chapter's notion of shared resource networks, it points out that little research has analysed in detail ... More


The role of the mirror system in embodied communication

Natalie Sebanz and Günther Knoblich

in Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199231751
eISBN:
9780191696527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231751.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews current evidence on mirroring in an attempt to identify what the mirror system can and cannot do for embodied communication. It asks what mirroring does and does not buy us, ... More


Blind Vision: The Neuroscience of Visual Impairment

Zaira Cattaneo and Tomaso Vecchi

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015035
eISBN:
9780262295819
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015035.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Vision

Can a blind person see? The very idea seems paradoxical. And yet, if we conceive of “seeing” as the ability to generate internal mental representations that may contain visual details, the idea of ... More


Prospects

Reuven Dukas and John M. Ratcliffe (eds)

in Cognitive Ecology II

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226169354
eISBN:
9780226169378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226169378.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This final chapter summarizes the arguments and discussions of the book. The chapters in this book have dealt with a huge range of topics in a vast assortment of animals. Learning, memory, and ... More


Towards a ‘Machiavellian’ theory of emotional appraisal 1

PAUL E. GRIFFITHS

in Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528975
eISBN:
9780191689604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528975.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter takes up the idea that emotions are appraisals — that is, responses to features of the environment that concern human beings. It argues that neurological and experimental psychological ... More


Conclusions

Paolo Legrenzi and Carlo Umiltà

in Neuromania: On the limits of brain science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199591343
eISBN:
9780191729164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591343.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter presents some concluding thoughts. It addresses the question of why the addition of a neuroscientific component makes something credible when in fact it is not. It can be assumed that ... More


The role of the prefrontal cortex in self-consciousness: the case of auditory hallucinations

Chris Frith

in The Prefrontal Cortex: Executive and Cognitive Functions

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524410
eISBN:
9780191689192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524410.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explores the neural basis of particular symptoms rather than the patho-physiology of schizophrenia in general. An essential component of this exploration is an attempt to formulate ... More


Biological Preparedness and Evolutionary Explanation

Denise Dellarosa Cummins and Robert Cummins

in The World in the Head

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199548033
eISBN:
9780191809835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199548033.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter begins by discussing the factors that are prominent in motivating interest in evolutionary approaches to cognition and reviews criticisms against some of the approaches. It is followed ... More


Hume’s Skeptical Treatment of the Causal Inductive Inference

Graciela De Pierris

in Ideas, Evidence, and Method: Hume's Skepticism and Naturalism concerning Knowledge and Causation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716785
eISBN:
9780191785368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716785.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Chapter 4 develops a novel skeptical inductivist interpretation of Hume’s argument concerning the inference from observed constant conjunction. It rejects deductivist skeptical and anti-skeptical ... More


The Illusions of Numerosity

Riccardo Luccio

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0101
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

The illusions of numerosity can be broadly divided into two main categories (a) illusions of numerosity that can be observed in many classical illusions of linear or area extent just replacing the ... More


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