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Enhancement and Human Development

Allen Buchanan

in Beyond Humanity?: The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199587810
eISBN:
9780191728761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587810.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter does four things. Firstly, it begins to clear a path for more fruitful thinking about the ethics of enhancement by exposing two false framing assumptions that have seriously distorted ... More


Criminalizing Cognitive Enhancement at the Blackjack Table

Adam J. Kolber

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Blackjack players who “count cards” keep track of cards that have already been played and use this knowledge to turn the probability of winning in their favor. So long as card counters rely on their ... More


Cognitive Enhancement: A Confucian Perspective from Taiwan

Kevin Chien-Chang Wu

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Literature on cognitive enhancement from a Confucian perspective has been lacking. This chapter reviews current debates on cognitive enhancement, such as risk/cost/benefit, freedom, autonomy, ... More


Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Fabrice Jotterand and Veljko Dubljevic (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

There is a growing literature in neuroethics dealing with cognitive neuroenhancement for healthy adults. However, discussions on this topic tend to focus on abstract theoretical positions while ... More


The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance

Anders Sandberg, Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Cognitive performance of the participants has crucial significance for legal trials, sometimes making the difference between fair and unfair verdicts. Jury members are expected to passively listen to ... More


Cognitive enhancement of today may be the normal of tomorrow

Fabrice Jotterand

in Neuroethics: Anticipating the future

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198786832
eISBN:
9780191839894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786832.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter considers the use of cognitive enhancers in healthy individuals with cognitive deficits caused by mental impairment. The objectives of this analysis are twofold: (1) to outline some of ... More


Defining Contexts of Neurocognitive (Performance) Enhancements: Neuroethical Considerations and Implications for Policy

John R. Shook and James Giordano

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

There may be no such a thing as a generic enhancement to cognitive performance. Cultural inheritance, group socialization, personal values, and physiological factors are necessarily involved when ... More


The ethical debate on human enhancement and cognitive enhancement by way of biotechnologies

Ruud ter Meulen

in Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198727392
eISBN:
9780191835230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727392.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter presents an overview of the main issues in the ethical debate on the use of biotechnologies to enhance human functioning, including cognitive enhancement technologies. In this debate, ... More


Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits

Nicholas Agar

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262026635
eISBN:
9780262318976
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026635.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

The transformative potential of genetic and cybernetic technologies to enhance human capabilities is most often either rejected on moral and prudential grounds or hailed as the future salvation of ... More


Introduction

Fabrice Jotterand and Veljko Dubljević

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter serves as an introduction to the volume, an international collection of essays that fill the gap in the growing literature in neuroethics dealing with cognitive neuroenhancement for ... More


Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Ruud ter Meulen, Ahmed Mohammed, and Wayne Hall (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198727392
eISBN:
9780191835230
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727392.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In view of the high expectations of cognitive enhancement and concerns about the potential risks of using cognitive technologies, this book critically engages with the scientific and ethical issues ... More


Cognitive Enhancement Down-Under: An Australian Perspective

Charmaine Jensen, Brad Partridge, Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall, and Jayne Lucke

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) has not featured prominently in Australian health policy or public debates. Australia’s cultural values may differ from those of the United States, where ... More


Students and “smart drugs”: Empirical research can shed light on enhancement enthusiasm

Brad Partridge

in Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198727392
eISBN:
9780191835230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727392.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants is often portrayed as widespread among university students (as a “study aid”). At the same time, enthusiasts have often claimed prescription stimulants ... More


Cognitive Enhancement in Canada: An Overview of Conceptual and Contextual Aspects, Policy Discussions, and Academic Research

Eric Racine

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

On a per capita basis, Canada is considered one of the heavier prescription drug using nations. This is in part due to its provincial public health care systems that provide broad and comprehensive ... More


Regulating Cognitive Enhancement Technologies: Policy Options and Problems

Robert H. Blank

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

The chapter first describes the policy options that are available to policy makers to regulate research, marketing, and individual use of cognitive enhancement technologies. It then examines the ... More


Cognitive enhancement using noninvasive brain stimulation: weighing opportunity, feasibility, and risk

Priyanka P. Shah-Basak and Roy H. Hamilton

in Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198727392
eISBN:
9780191835230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727392.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Therapies treat diseases, while enhancement improves normal abilities. We have referred to this notion of inorganically boosting the neural functions of healthy individuals as “cosmetic neurology.” ... More


Cognitive Enhancement in the Netherlands: Practices, Public Opinion, and Ethics

Maartje Schermer

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

In the Netherlands, cognitive enhancement use by the healthy has only been discussed by a small group of academics but is not a major topic in public debate—the rising prescription use of ... More


Cognitive Enhancement and the Leveling of the Playing Field: The Case of Latin America

Daniel Loewe

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter addresses the prevalence and normative implications of cognitive enhancement in Latin America. According to the author, a policy of open market access to cognitive ... More


Toward an Ethical Framework for Regulating the Market for Cognitive Enhancement Devices

Hannah Maslen

in Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199396818
eISBN:
9780199396825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396818.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

A market has emerged for brain stimulation devices promising to enhance cognitive performance. Because cognitive enhancement devices (CEDs) do not make treatment claims, they are held only to basic ... More


Exaggerating the benefits and downplaying the risks in the bioethical debate on cognitive neuroenhancement

Andreas Heinz and Sabine Müller

in Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198727392
eISBN:
9780191835230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727392.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Proponents of cognitive neuroenhancement usually ground their argumentation on the assumption that effective neuroenhancers without serious risks and side effects exist or will exist soon. Their ... More


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