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Social Justice and Public Equality

Thomas Christiano

in The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198297475
eISBN:
9780191716867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297475.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

This chapter argues that social justice requires that equality be publicly realized. Social justice is realized in social and political institutions that attempt to establish justice. It requires ... More


COGNITIVE BIAS MODIFICATION: THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING PARADIGMS

Jenna G. Suway and Nathan A. Fox

in Cognitive Neuroscience, Development, and Psychopathology: Typical and Atypical Developmental Trajectories of Attention

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195315455
eISBN:
9780199979066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315455.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Biased social information processing is thought to underlie the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Two such biases that have been frequently linked to anxiety and depression are ... More


Rethinking Cognitive Biases as Environmental Consequences

Gerd Gigerenzer, Klaus Fiedler, and Henrik Olsson

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Cognitive processes and their adaptive functions can hardly be understood if we look exclusively inside the mind, such as when we try to explain behavior with traits, attitudes, or preferences. ... More


Cognitive Functioning in Depression: Nature and Origins

Ian H. Gotlib, Eva Gilboa, and Beth Kaplan Sommerfeld

in Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195133585
eISBN:
9780199847310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133585.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter explores the psychiatric disorder of depression and the opening section provides relevant statistics and a brief history of related research on depression. This chapter focuses on ... More


Rational People and Religion

Witham Larry

in Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394757
eISBN:
9780199777372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394757.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Economics and cognitive psychology have long debated the nature of human rationality. One says humans have a capacity for rational calculation, while the other points to “cognitive bias” in people’s ... More


The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance

Anders Sandberg, Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Cognitive performance of the participants has crucial significance for legal trials, sometimes making the difference between fair and unfair verdicts. Jury members are expected to passively listen to ... More


Decision Making Processes and the Rate and Direction of Innovation *

David J. Teece

in Managing Intellectual Capital: Organizational, Strategic, and Policy Dimensions

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295426
eISBN:
9780191596964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295421.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The reluctance to introduce competency‐destroying innovations may be understood as a product of the decision‐making biases of many large firms; some large firms tend to lose their ability and desire ... More


Introduction

Susan A. Gelman

in The Essential Child: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195154061
eISBN:
9780199786718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154061.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This introduction concerns essentialism in everyday thought. Roughly, essentialism is the view that categories have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly but that ... More


Every Jury Trial Is a Bench Trial: Judicial Engineering of Jury Disputes

C. K. Rowland, Tina Traficanti, and Erin Vernon

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

For decades virtually every scholarly work on trial judges began by lamenting the unfortunate tendency of students of judicial behavior to concentrate almost exclusively on appellate courts generally ... More


Features of Judicial Reasoning

Emily Sherwin

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Judges confront rules in two ways, as rule-makers and as rule-followers. When a judge decides a case that is not governed by an existing rule, the judge must formulate a rule of decision and ... More


Teleological Minds: How Natural Intuitions about Agency and Purpose Influence Learning about Evolution

Deborah Kelemen

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Natural selection is the process responsible for the functional adaptation of biological organisms. Despite its basic and applied scientific relevance, it remains one of the most widely misunderstood ... More


What Is It Like to Be a Citizen?

Eric Beerbohm

in In Our Name: The Ethics of Democracy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154619
eISBN:
9781400842384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154619.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter defends a theory of citizenship that recognizes our need to make online decisions under electoral pressures, given our foibles as decision makers. Drawing upon the extensive literature ... More


Autism and the Imaginative Mind

ILONA MIELKE

in Imaginative Minds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264195
eISBN:
9780191734540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264195.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Autism is diagnosed through a symptom of clusters known as the diagnostic triad. One of these is the rigid adherence to routines, repetitive activities, and narrowly focused interests which represent ... More


Campaigns and the Stability of Political Opinion

James A. Gardner

in What are Campaigns For?: The Role of Persuasion in Electoral Law and Politics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195392616
eISBN:
9780199855438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195392616.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Could changes to the laws that regulate campaigns improve them? This chapter addresses this question by reviewing the social science literature on how people arrive at political opinions. This ... More


Probabilistic Mental Models

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The cognitive bias research claims that people are naturally prone to making mistakes in reasoning and memory, including the mistake of over-estimating their knowledge. This chapter proposes a new ... More


Decision Making in Child Welfare: Constraints and Potentials

Eileen Gambrill

in Child Welfare Research: Advances for Practice and Policy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195304961
eISBN:
9780199863648
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304961.003.0010
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Research and Evaluation

Child welfare practitioners make life-altering decisions on a daily basis. This chapter describes factors affecting decisions drawing on literature concerning decision making, problem solving and ... More


Defining Good Judging

Andrew J. Wistrich

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Some have suggested that we must define good judging before we begin studying, evaluating, and reforming judicial decision making. This chapter argues that this view is understandable but questions ... More


Error Management

Daniel Nettle

in Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018081
eISBN:
9780262306027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018081.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter briefly introduces error management theory, an evolutionary framework for understanding how natural selection should be expected to shape decision-making mechanisms. Selection minimizes ... More


Cognitive factors underlying paranormal beliefs and experiences

Christopher C. French and Krissy Wilson

in Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain: Separating fact from fiction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198568773
eISBN:
9780191693779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568773.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

It is clear that a wide range of situations exist that can potentially lead people to believe that they have experienced the paranormal when in fact they have not. The question regarding possible ... More


Cognitive Considerations in the Development of Citizen Science Projects

Rebecca C. Jordan, Joan G. Ehrenfeld, Steven A. Gray, Wesley R. Brooks, David V. Howe, and Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver

in Citizen Science: Public Participation in Environmental Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449116
eISBN:
9780801463952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449116.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses cognitive considerations that need to be taken into account in the development of citizen science projects. It first looks at a research project with combined research and ... More


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