Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

You are looking at 1-20 of 85 items

  • Keywords: cognitive bias x
Clear All Modify Search

View:

Social Justice and Public Equality

Thomas Christiano

in The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198297475
eISBN:
9780191716867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297475.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

This chapter argues that social justice requires that equality be publicly realized. Social justice is realized in social and political institutions that attempt to establish justice. It requires ... More


COGNITIVE BIAS MODIFICATION: THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING PARADIGMS

Jenna G. Suway and Nathan A. Fox

in Cognitive Neuroscience, Development, and Psychopathology: Typical and Atypical Developmental Trajectories of Attention

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195315455
eISBN:
9780199979066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315455.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Biased social information processing is thought to underlie the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Two such biases that have been frequently linked to anxiety and depression are ... More


Rethinking Cognitive Biases as Environmental Consequences

Gerd Gigerenzer, Klaus Fiedler, and Henrik Olsson

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Cognitive processes and their adaptive functions can hardly be understood if we look exclusively inside the mind, such as when we try to explain behavior with traits, attitudes, or preferences. ... More


Cognitive Functioning in Depression: Nature and Origins

Ian H. Gotlib, Eva Gilboa, and Beth Kaplan Sommerfeld

in Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195133585
eISBN:
9780199847310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133585.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter explores the psychiatric disorder of depression and the opening section provides relevant statistics and a brief history of related research on depression. This chapter focuses on ... More


Rational People and Religion

Witham Larry

in Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394757
eISBN:
9780199777372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394757.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Economics and cognitive psychology have long debated the nature of human rationality. One says humans have a capacity for rational calculation, while the other points to “cognitive bias” in people’s ... More


Reducing the Risk of Cognitive Bias in Intelligence Analysis

Martha Whitesmith

in Cognitive Bias in Intelligence Analysis: Testing the Analysis of Competing Hypotheses Method

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474466349
eISBN:
9781474491112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474466349.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

Recommendations for future research and best practice for intelligence analysis.


Cognitive Bias in Intelligence Analysis: Testing the Analysis of Competing Hypotheses Method

Martha Whitesmith

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474466349
eISBN:
9781474491112
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474466349.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

Belief, Bias and Intelligence outlines an approach for reducing the risk of cognitive biases impacting intelligence analysis that draws from experimental research in the social sciences. It critiques ... More


Guardian Angels: The Strategic Advantages of Cognitive Biases

Dominic D. P. Johnson

in Strategic Instincts: The Adaptive Advantages of Cognitive Biases in International Politics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691137452
eISBN:
9780691185606
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137452.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents a summary of the findings and explores the implications of the new evolutionary perspective on cognitive biases for international relations. It concludes that the cognitive ... More


The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance

Anders Sandberg, Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Cognitive performance of the participants has crucial significance for legal trials, sometimes making the difference between fair and unfair verdicts. Jury members are expected to passively listen to ... More


The Efficacy of ACH in Establishing Epistemic Justification and Mitigating Cognitive Bias

Martha Whitesmith

in Cognitive Bias in Intelligence Analysis: Testing the Analysis of Competing Hypotheses Method

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781474466349
eISBN:
9781474491112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474466349.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

The chapter examines the ability of current versions of the structured analytical technique, assessment of competing hypotheses (ACH) to provide theoretically valid methodologies for establishing ... More


Introduction

Susan A. Gelman

in The Essential Child: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195154061
eISBN:
9780199786718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154061.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This introduction concerns essentialism in everyday thought. Roughly, essentialism is the view that categories have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly but that ... More


Decision Making Processes and the Rate and Direction of Innovation *

David J. Teece

in Managing Intellectual Capital: Organizational, Strategic, and Policy Dimensions

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295426
eISBN:
9780191596964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295421.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The reluctance to introduce competency‐destroying innovations may be understood as a product of the decision‐making biases of many large firms; some large firms tend to lose their ability and desire ... More


Teleological Minds: How Natural Intuitions about Agency and Purpose Influence Learning about Evolution

Deborah Kelemen

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Natural selection is the process responsible for the functional adaptation of biological organisms. Despite its basic and applied scientific relevance, it remains one of the most widely misunderstood ... More


Every Jury Trial Is a Bench Trial: Judicial Engineering of Jury Disputes

C. K. Rowland, Tina Traficanti, and Erin Vernon

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

For decades virtually every scholarly work on trial judges began by lamenting the unfortunate tendency of students of judicial behavior to concentrate almost exclusively on appellate courts generally ... More


Features of Judicial Reasoning

Emily Sherwin

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Judges confront rules in two ways, as rule-makers and as rule-followers. When a judge decides a case that is not governed by an existing rule, the judge must formulate a rule of decision and ... More


Autism and the Imaginative Mind

ILONA MIELKE

in Imaginative Minds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264195
eISBN:
9780191734540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264195.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Autism is diagnosed through a symptom of clusters known as the diagnostic triad. One of these is the rigid adherence to routines, repetitive activities, and narrowly focused interests which represent ... More


Strategic Instincts: The Adaptive Advantages of Cognitive Biases in International Politics

Dominic D. P. Johnson

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691137452
eISBN:
9780691185606
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137452.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

A widespread assumption in political science and international relations is that cognitive biases — quirks of the brain we all share as human beings — are detrimental and responsible for policy ... More


What Is It Like to Be a Citizen?

Eric Beerbohm

in In Our Name: The Ethics of Democracy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154619
eISBN:
9781400842384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154619.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter defends a theory of citizenship that recognizes our need to make online decisions under electoral pressures, given our foibles as decision makers. Drawing upon the extensive literature ... More


Our Gift

Dominic D. P. Johnson

in Strategic Instincts: The Adaptive Advantages of Cognitive Biases in International Politics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691137452
eISBN:
9780691185606
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137452.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter describes strategic instincts as rapid, adaptive decision-making heuristics that all human beings have and are not achieved by accident. It elaborates how strategic instincts keep people ... More


Campaigns and the Stability of Political Opinion

James A. Gardner

in What are Campaigns For?: The Role of Persuasion in Electoral Law and Politics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195392616
eISBN:
9780199855438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195392616.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Could changes to the laws that regulate campaigns improve them? This chapter addresses this question by reviewing the social science literature on how people arrive at political opinions. This ... More


View: