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Cacao Borers

Dale Walters

in Chocolate Crisis: Climate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781683401674
eISBN:
9781683402343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

The minute moth Conopomorpha cramerella is a dainty insect that poses a serious threat to the cacao industry in Southeast Asia – the cocoa pod borer. This insect is responsible for losses to the ... More


International Remedial Action

Alfred Maizels, Robert Bacon, and George Mavrotas

in COMMODITY SUPPLY MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCING COUNTRIES: A Case-Study of the Tropical Beverage Crops

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233381
eISBN:
9780191678981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233381.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Until the 1970s ended, countries engaged in negotiating agreements with economic provisions. These were intended for providing a framework for negotiated particular price objectives especially for ... More


The World Cocoa Market

Alfred Maizels, Robert Bacon, and George Mavrotas

in COMMODITY SUPPLY MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCING COUNTRIES: A Case-Study of the Tropical Beverage Crops

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233381
eISBN:
9780191678981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233381.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The demand for cocoa is derived from the demand for the final products cocoa is used in. Cocoa relies on the production of chocolate, as chocolate is further used in a wide variety of products and is ... More


Commodity Value Chains Compression—Coffee, Cocoa, and Sugar

Jaya Choraria

in Commodity Prices and Development

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199234707
eISBN:
9780191715488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234707.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter details a study of commodity value chain compression for coffee, cocoa, and sugar. The study uses time series data of prices along entire commodity chains from raw material in a ... More


Food of the Gods

Dale Walters

in Chocolate Crisis: Climate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781683401674
eISBN:
9781683402343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter deals with the history of cacao and cocoa, from its primary center of diversity in the Amazon basin to its cultivation in numerous countries across the humid lowland tropics. It covers ... More


Chocolate Is a Product of the Cacao Tree

Dale Walters

in Chocolate Crisis: Climate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781683401674
eISBN:
9781683402343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter looks at both the Theobroma cacao tree and its cultivation. It covers cacao botany: its unusual habit of cauliflory, where the flowers, and hence the pods, arise directly from the trunk ... More


Child Labor

Susan C. Mapp

in Global Child Welfare and Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195339710
eISBN:
9780199863686
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195339710.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

Reasons for children to engage in labor are discussed including poverty, gender roles and political conflict. Types of labor examined include street children, working on farms, in factories or mines, ... More


The Dynamics of the World Cocoa Price

Christopher L. Gilbert

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter constructs a data series on real cocoa prices extending back to 1850, and uses this series to model cocoa price dynamics. Cocoa prices are characterized by long (approximately 25-year) ... More


The Mochaccino Market: Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa

Kara Newman

in The Secret Financial Life of Food: From Commodities Markets to Supermarkets

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156714
eISBN:
9780231527347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156714.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter reviews the history of commodity exchanges trading coffee, sugar, and cocoa. Much of the earliest trading of coffee (and other commodities) took place in coffeehouses. It is impossible ... More


Concentration and Price Transmission in the Cocoa–Chocolate Chain

Catherine Araujo Bonjean and Jean-François Brun

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The history of the chocolate industry is a long process of industrial acquisitions, mergers, and restructuring, which leads to a high degree of horizontal concentration. We explore the changes in the ... More


The Economics of Chocolate

Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This book covers the history of cocoa and chocolate from its origins in Central America to the recent consumption boom in emerging markets, as well as the growing importance of sustainable sourcing ... More


Chocolate, slavery, forced labour, child labour and the state

Ronald Hinch

in A Handbook of Food Crime: Immoral and Illegal Practices in the Food Industry and What to Do About Them

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447336013
eISBN:
9781447336051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447336013.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The objective in this chapter is to review the history of slave labour in the cocoa industry, including forced labour and unpaid child labour, to illustrate how governments often collaborate with the ... More


Public Expenditure on Agriculture and its Impact

Samuel Benin

in Ghana's Economic and Agricultural Transformation: Past Performance and Future Prospects

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845348
eISBN:
9780191880599
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845348.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines trends in public agricultural spending between 1961 and 2012 and disaggregates that spending into the cocoa and noncocoa sectors. The majority of total spending has gone into ... More


Globalization and International Commodity Trade with Specific Reference to the West African Cocoa Producers

Christopher L. Gilbert and Panos Varangis

in Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226036151
eISBN:
9780226036557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226036557.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter explores one case of primary-commodity liberalization in some detail: cocoa in West Africa. It is organized as follows. Section 4.2 discusses the economics of liberalization, while ... More


Côte d’Ivoire: Bitter Chocolate

Jean Merckaert

in On the Trail of Capital Flight from Africa: The Takers and the Enablers

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
February 2022
ISBN:
9780198852728
eISBN:
9780191887086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198852728.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The chapter tells the story of capital flight from Côte d’Ivoire, focusing on the cocoa sector. The impressive economic growth fueled by cocoa exports after independence, once hailed as the “Ivorian ... More


Hydrology and Rural Water Supply in Southeast Asia

Goh Kim Chuan

in The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199248025
eISBN:
9780191917530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199248025.003.0029
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Physical Geography and Topography

The East Asian economic turmoil of 1997 and its lingering effects belie the decade of unprecedented economic growth in the Southeast Asian region. This economic boom saw a significant increase in ... More


Bittersweet Harvest: The Colonial Cocoa Boom and the Tropical Forest Frontier

Corey Ross

in Ecology and Power in the Age of Empire: Europe and the Transformation of the Tropical World

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199590414
eISBN:
9780191829901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590414.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Social History

This chapter considers the rapid expansion of cocoa production in Europe’s tropical colonies. It outlines the development of plantation cultivation and the challenges it faced, and lays particular ... More


The Economics of Chocolate: Introduction and Overview

Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The title of the book is The Economics of Chocolate, but this volume is about more than economics in the narrow sense of the word. Instead, it addresses issues that are of interest to economists, and ... More


A Brief Economic History of Chocolate

Eline Poelmans and Johan Swinnen

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter reviews cocoa and chocolate production, consumption, and the industrial organization of chocolate making throughout history. Cocoa production and consumption was, for a long time, ... More


Sustaining Supplies in Smallholder-Dominated Value Chains: Corporate Governance of the Global Cocoa Sector

Niels Fold and Jeff Neilson

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Significant institutional transformations are occurring along the contemporary cocoa–chocolate value chain. Drawing on field research from Indonesia and Ghana, this chapter identifies the largely ... More


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