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South Africa: One Party Dominance Despite Perfect Proportionality

Amanda Gouws and Paul Mitchell

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0017
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Democratic elections in South Africa have been held using a closed-list PR system since 1994. Despite significant debate on whether the system should be reformed, the 1994 system has been retained. ... More


Spain: Proportional Representation with Majoritarian Outcomes

Jonathan Hopkin

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0018
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Spain has a PR system that has not been particularly proportional. The main reason is that its 50 historic provinces (dating from 1833) were chosen as the electoral districts, and these provinces ... More


Israel: The Politics of an Extreme Electoral System

Gideon Rahat and Reuven Y. Hazan

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0016
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Israel had a closed list PR system that was so proportional that it resulted in a large multi-party system with a very fragmented parliament. One result is that for decades, Israel experienced ... More


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