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Protecting human subjects in brain research: a pragmatic perspective

Franklin G. Miller and Joseph J. Fins

in Neuroethics: Defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198567219
eISBN:
9780191724084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567219.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter elucidates ethical considerations in designing and carrying out clinical research on people with brain disorders based on an approach to research ethics derived from American ... More


Consent to Clinical Research

Franklin G. Miller

in The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195335149
eISBN:
9780199866335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335149.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter considers the scope and limits of consent to participate in research. Following discussion of a famous historical case of clinical research without informed consent, it examines the ... More


The Strength of Diverse Ties *: Multiple Hybridity in the Politics of Inclusion and Difference in U.S. Biomedical Research

Steven Epstein

in Social Movements and the Transformation of American Health Care

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388299
eISBN:
9780199866519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388299.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Epstein considers collective efforts to transform federal health regulations guiding clinical research. Since 1986, federal laws, policies, and guidelines have either required or encouraged ... More


Children in clinical trials in Ireland: addressing the gaps in the legal framework

Katherine Wade

in Ethical and Legal Debates In Irish Healthcare: Confronting complexities

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719099465
eISBN:
9781526104410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719099465.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Culture

This chapter focuses on two key areas which require further clarity and elaboration in the context of research with children, namely, the requirements for research which does not offer the child the ... More


Biomedical Sciences

Jack Morrell

in Science at Oxford, 1914-1939: Transforming an Arts University

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206576
eISBN:
9780191677229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206576.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the developments in the teaching of biomedical sciences at Oxford University in England from 1914 to 1939. Though the medical faculty was established in 1885, its teaching and ... More


Evidence-based decision-making in child health: The role of clinical research and economic evaluation

Gillian Currie, Sarah Curtis, and Terry Klassen

in Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199547494
eISBN:
9780191720055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.003.14
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Health economics plays an important part in the clinical research and knowledge translation phases of the research process, as well as having a role in health care prioritization and accountability. ... More


The decision to decline to enrol in a clinical trial: a blind spot in the literature on decision-making for research participation

Claire Snowdon, Diana Elbourne, and Jo Garcia

in The Limits of Consent: A socio-ethical approach to human subject research in medicine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231461
eISBN:
9780191723858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231461.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the decisions of parents of critically ill babies who had not consented to take part in research. Their decisions were based on a misunderstanding of the information they had ... More


Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen Van Den Eeden, and Valarie M. McGuire (eds)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book provides the foundation for conducting rigorous epidemiologic and clinical research on neurologic disorders. The book has three parts, each emphasizing the unique aspects of studying ... More


Neuroepidemiology: Fundamental Considerations

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.01
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a review of essential concepts, including an overview of the nervous system and methods for diagnosing neurologic disease. Knowledge of the unique characteristics of the nervous ... More


Living with Dying: A Guide to Palliative Care

Cicely Saunders, Mary Baines, and Robert Dunlop

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192625144
eISBN:
9780191730009
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625144.001.0001
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

The new edition of this book has been updated to incorporate recent advances in both the approach to, and treatment of, the terminally ill. Based on many years of monitoring clinical practice and ... More


Protecting Human Subjects: Bits, Bytes, and Biopsies

in Law in the Laboratory: A Guide to the Ethics of Federally Funded Science Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226101644
eISBN:
9780226101668
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226101668.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter discusses how and why the government and universities got involved in regulating clinical research. It also explains the five types of rules that govern research involving human ... More


Reporting of Research: Are We in for Better Health Care by 2020?

Holger Schünemann, Davina Ghersi, Julia Kreis, Gerd Antes, and Jean Bousquet

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Logical arguments support the view that complete, transparent, and objective reporting of research results avoids systematic error, misinformation, and unrealistic expectations. Evidence about ... More


Informed consent in medical research – a procedure stretched beyond breaking point?

Søren Holm and Søren Madsen

in The Limits of Consent: A socio-ethical approach to human subject research in medicine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231461
eISBN:
9780191723858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231461.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the question of whether the institutionalized and formalized practice of informed consent in the context of clinical research has been stretched beyond breaking point. It ... More


Dealing with Uncertainty: Payment Policy for the Generation of Evidence as Part of Clinical Practice

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Linking practice with evidence through payment policy will increase the value we get for the dollars we expend on medical care. But vast uncertainties exist in medicine. How should we proceed when ... More


The Generation of Evidence in Medicine: Evaluating the Benefits and Harms of Treatment

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Federal mandates for comparative effectiveness research enacted during the 2000’s are intended to increase the kind of high-quality evidence that doctors and patients need for optimal clinical ... More


Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Americans like to believe that the medical care we get from our doctors is based on solid scientific evidence. We hear often that American medical care and medical research are the best in the world. ... More


Criticism and the Redefinition of Clinical Cancer Trials as an Autonomous Form of Research

Peter Keating and Alberto Cambrosio

in Cancer on Trial: Oncology as a New Style of Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226428918
eISBN:
9780226428932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226428932.003.0080
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses how clinical cancer trials ceased to be seen as a mere extension of the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center (CCNSC) and became an autonomous form of clinical research. ... More


Professional integrity in clinical research

Donald L. Rosenstein and Evan G. DeRenzo

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines challenging issues of professional integrity relating to clinical research studies conducted by physician investigators with patient volunteers. It considers two models of the ... More


Medical Journals Can Be Less Biased

J. A. Muir Gray

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

The quality of medical research depends on the use of structured protocols. Problems associated with poor quality research reports range from poor design to improper management or irrelevant ... More


Beyond Childhood

Eugene Subbotsky

in Magic and the Mind: Mechanisms, Functions, and Development of Magical Thinking and Behavior

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195393873
eISBN:
9780199776979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393873.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Chapter 5 (“Beyond Childhood”) presents anthropological and psychological research on magical thinking in adults. It argues not only that magical thinking does not disappear in ... More


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