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Effects of Conditioning in Advertising

Todd R. Schachtman, Jennifer Walker, and Stephanie Fowler

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0157
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A large number of advertisements pair the presentation of a product or brand name with another stimulus that possesses affective value. The pairing of these two stimuli can result in a change in ... More


Reward- and punishment-related learning; emotion and motivation

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter details associative processes involved in reward- and punishment-related learning. It also covers Pavlovian or classical conditioning; representations in the brain of primary reinforcers ... More


Immune and endocrine systems

Fabrizio Benedetti

in Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Hot and Bothered: Classical Conditioning of Sexual Incentives in Humans

Heather Hoffmann

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0176
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Cross-cultural and individual variation in erotic taste indicate that what we find sexually attractive depends on experience. Partner and other environmental cues can acquire sexually arousing (or ... More


The Biology of Positive Emotions and Health

Andrea H. Marques and Esther M. Sternberg

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter reviews existing literature on the biological pathways and mechanisms involved in social interactions and positive emotions and their potential relationship to enhanced health. The first ... More


Behavioural Models of Learning

Shane N. Phillipson

in Learning and Teaching in the Chinese Classroom: Responding to Individual Needs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9789888083428
eISBN:
9789882209848
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888083428.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter introduces a number of behavioural models of learning, including classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social cognitive theory, and applies these models of learning in the ... More


Improving Health Through the Development and Management of Habits

Leslie R. Martin, Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

in Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence: Evidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195380408
eISBN:
9780199864454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The ways in which healthy habits are formed and maintained over time, as well as the ways in which health-harmful habits can be extinguished, are the topics of this chapter. The principles of ... More


Neural mechanisms of classical conditioning in mammals

RICHARD F. THOMPSON

in Behavioural and Neural Aspects of Learning and Memory

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198521983
eISBN:
9780191688492
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521983.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Evidence supports the view that ‘memory traces’ are formed in the hippocampus and in the cerebellum in classical conditioning of discrete behavioural responses. In the hippocampus learning results in ... More


Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and Intervention

JACQUELINE CORCORAN and JOSEPH WALSH

in Building Strengths and Skills: A Collaborative Approach to Working with Clients

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195154306
eISBN:
9780199864287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154306.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

This chapter provides a brief overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy, a broad class of present-focused interventions with a shared focus on changing cognition (thoughts, beliefs, and assumptions ... More


Neurons and Simple Memory Circuits

Howard Eichenbaum

in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199778614
eISBN:
9780199932962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778614.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter summarizes some of the key fundamental concepts about the anatomy and physiology of neurons, including the molecular basis of the unusual electrical properties of neurons, different ... More


Classical conditioning, drug cues and drug addiction

Steven Glautier

in Appetite: Neural and Behavioural Bases

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547877
eISBN:
9780191724275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547877.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter describes the way drug use can be thought of in terms of classical conditioning, the ways in which conditioning processes are thought to affect drug taking behaviour, and the ... More


Behavioural and Neural Aspects of Learning and Memory

J. R. Krebs and G. Horn (eds)

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198521983
eISBN:
9780191688492
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521983.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The topics discussed in this volume have been chosen to represent studies in which both behavioural and neurobiological analysis have been emphasized. They include work on behavioural and neural ... More


Nonfinite Clauses

Chris Collins and Paul M. Postal

in Classical NEG Raising: An Essay on the Syntax of Negation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262027311
eISBN:
9780262323840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027311.003.0019
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter considers the role of nonfinite clauses in the distribution of Classical NEG Raising (NR). It first considers the literature bias toward finite hosts in standard Classical NR cases, ... More


Internal Stimuli Generated by Abused Substances: Role of Pavlovian Conditioning and Its Implications for Drug Addiction

Rick A. Bevins and Jennifer E. Murray

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0084
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Consideration of the importance of Pavlovian conditioning involving interoceptive stimuli to health-related issues dates back to Pavlov. Despite this long history and its likely importance, the ... More


The behavioural analysis of animal vision

Randolph Blake

in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523192
eISBN:
9780191688850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523192.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses the behavioural study techniques of animal vision. The visual consequences associated with disorders within the visual nervous system are assessed through the study of animal ... More


Comparing motivational systems—an incentive motivation perspective

Frederick Toates

in Appetite: Neural and Behavioural Bases

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547877
eISBN:
9780191724275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547877.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the result of a 1985 study concerning an incentive motivation model. It discusses the capacity of incentives to arouse motivation and explains the concepts adaptive control and ... More


Immune and endocrine systems

Benedetti Fabrizio

in Placebo Effects: 2nd Edition: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198705086
eISBN:
9780191789151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705086.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Learning and Conditioning

George R. Mastroianni

in Of Mind and Murder: Toward a More Comprehensive Psychology of the Holocaust

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190638238
eISBN:
9780190638269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190638238.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 6 argues that when considering potential causative factors for the development of genocidal behavior, there is a middle ground between cultural and historical factors that operate over a very ... More


Learning and control

Ivan Herreros

in Living machines: A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199674923
eISBN:
9780191842702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199674923.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Development

This chapter discusses basic concepts from control theory and machine learning to facilitate a formal understanding of animal learning and motor control. It first distinguishes between feedback and ... More


Reading and Learning

Roderick I. Nicolson and Angela J. Fawcett

in Dyslexia, Learning, and the Brain

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262140997
eISBN:
9780262280662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262140997.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses reading, learning to read, and the components of skilled reading. It outlines cognitive processes and possible brain mechanisms in understanding spoken and written language. It ... More


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