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The Cold War Struggle (1): Capitalist Atrocities

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

This chapter is the first of two on the Cold War. The post-Second World War period saw the gradual transformation of civilian immunity from shared moral norm to international legal rule. While both ... More


Civilian Immunity and the Politics of Legitimacy

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

This chapter examines two conceptual issues that underpin the rest of the book. The first part clarifies what we understand to be the norm of civilian immunity. It considers how that norm relates to ... More


Radical Islamism and the War on Terror

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

This chapter examines the radical Islamist ideology of selective extermination espoused by Al Qaeda and the impact of the West's response on civilian immunity. The radical Islamist doctrine holds ... More


Introduction

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

The intentional killing of civilians, whether in peacetime or war, is morally prohibited. Most of the world's major ethical traditions and legal codes forbid the deliberate killing of people who are ... More


The Cold War Struggle (2): Communist Atrocities

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

Communist regimes massacred millions of civilians during the Cold War. Governments in the Soviet Union, China and Cambodia initiated programs of radical social transformation and killed, tortured or ... More


Killing in War

Jeff McMahan

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199548668
eISBN:
9780191721045
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548668.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Killing a person is in general among the most seriously wrongful forms of action, yet most of us accept that it can be permissible to kill people on a large scale in war. Does morality become more ... More


Terror Bombing in the Second World War

Alex J. Bellamy

in Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

This chapter examines the bombing of German and Japanese cities during the Second World War. Between 300,000–600,000 German civilians and over 200,000 Japanese civilians were killed by allied bombing ... More


Contractarianism and the Moral Equality of Civilians

Yitzhak Benbaji and Daniel Statman

in War By Agreement: A Contractarian Ethics of War

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199577194
eISBN:
9780191879548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199577194.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The chapter proposes a contractarian account of the strict prohibition against targeting civilians and of the limited permission to collaterally harm them. It shows that under an arrangement by which ... More


Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity

Alex J. Bellamy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199288427
eISBN:
9780191745430
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288427.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Political Theory

Most cultural and legal codes agree that the intentional killing of civilians, whether in peacetime or war, is prohibited. This is the norm of civilian immunity, widely considered to be a fundamental ... More


The General Rules on Civilians in Armed Conflicts: Civilian Immunity and the Principle of Distinction

Emily Crawford

in Identifying the Enemy: Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199678495
eISBN:
9780191757983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678495.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Chapter 1 outlines the general law that relates to civilians in armed conflict—the principle of distinction—which provides that civilians are immune from targeting so long as they refrain from taking ... More


Direct Participation in Hostilities

Emily Crawford

in Identifying the Enemy: Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199678495
eISBN:
9780191757983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678495.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Chapter 3 examines in detail the concept of direct participation in hostilities (DPH). This chapter looks at the history and development of the concept of DPH as an exception to non-combatant ... More


Civilians

Adil Ahmad Haque

in Law and Morality at War

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199687398
eISBN:
9780191767180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199687398.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter offers a moral defense of the legal principle of civilian immunity. Civilians enjoy general legal protection from intentional, unnecessary, and disproportionate harm unless and for such ... More


Civilian Immunity

Seumas Miller

in Shooting to Kill: The Ethics of Police and Military Use of Lethal Force

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190626136
eISBN:
9780190626174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190626136.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Military combatants have special moral duties to protect the members of their own citizenry, but not specialduties to protect citizens of other communities. Nevertheless, it is not the case that ... More


How Terrorism Expedites Organizational Demise

Max Abrahms

in Rules for Rebels: The Science of Victory in Militant History

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198811558
eISBN:
9780191848438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198811558.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter explains why terrorism reduces the lifespan of militant groups. Whereas previous chapters showed that terrorism is ineffective for achieving their demands, this chapter shows that the ... More


Shooting to Kill: The Ethics of Police and Military Use of Lethal Force

Seumas Miller

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190626136
eISBN:
9780190626174
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190626136.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Terrorism, the use of military force in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria, and the fatal police shootings of unarmed persons have all contributed to renewed interest in the ethics of police and military ... More


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