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India

Vipin Narang

in Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era: Regional Powers and International Conflict

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159829
eISBN:
9781400850402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159829.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter explores India's nuclear posture. Like China's, India's nuclear posture is classified as one of assured retaliation. There have been various dramatic moments in India's nuclear weapons ... More


After Military Rule in Europe: Spain, Portugal, and Greece

Zoltan Barany

in The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137681
eISBN:
9781400845491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137681.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter focuses on the cases of Spain and Portugal. After decades of authoritarianism, placing the Spanish military under civilian control proved to be a relatively straightforward and brief ... More


After Colonial Rule in Africa: Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana

Zoltan Barany

in The Soldier and the Changing State: Building Democratic Armies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137681
eISBN:
9781400845491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137681.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter focuses on Ghana, Tanzania, and Botswana. During the periods under study here, Ghana experienced intermittent military rule while Tanzania was a socialist state; their armed forces were ... More


The Army

Stuart Anderson

in The Oxford History of the Laws of England: Volume XI: 1820–1914 English Legal System

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199258819
eISBN:
9780191718151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258819.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter considers the governance of the army in the 19th century. In law the army was the king's, or queen's. Politically it had for long been controlled by ministers whose responsibilities had ... More


Democracy and Civilian Control of the Armed Forces: Venezuela in Comparative Perspective

Harold A. Trinkunas

in Crafting Civilian Control of the Military in Venezuela: A Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807829820
eISBN:
9781469603643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877036_trinkunas.5
Subject:
History, Latin American History

When Venezuelans learned how to institutionalize civilian control, democracy prospered and consolidated during the 1960s and 1970s. Civilian control is consolidated when elected officials are able to ... More


The 1958 Transition to Democracy in Venezuela: Strategizing Civilian Control

Harold A. Trinkunas

in Crafting Civilian Control of the Military in Venezuela: A Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807829820
eISBN:
9781469603643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877036_trinkunas.7
Subject:
History, Latin American History

In 1958, Venezuela was given a second opportunity to democratize. Unlike the initial failed attempt in 1945–1958, democratization become successful and consolidated after Venezuelans had endured ten ... More


Civilian Control Under Fire: Resisting Challenges from the Military in Venezuela, 1992

Harold A. Trinkunas

in Crafting Civilian Control of the Military in Venezuela: A Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807829820
eISBN:
9781469603643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877036_trinkunas.9
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This chapter describes the eruption of military rebellion in Venezuela in 1992 due to the decline of institutionalized civilian control over the armed forces. It examines the changes that occurred in ... More


Inventing the Internet

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The development of the Internet involved the transformation of a computer network that was initially established in the late 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of ... More


Statecraft and Military Subordination in Venezuela, 1959–1973

Harold A. Trinkunas

in Crafting Civilian Control of the Military in Venezuela: A Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807829820
eISBN:
9781469603643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807877036_trinkunas.8
Subject:
History, Latin American History

The first democratically elected president following the 1958 transition was Rómulo Betancourt. Betancourt was immensely unpopular among military officers at the start of his administration and was ... More


Naval Elites and the State

Dirk Bönker

in Militarism in a Global Age: Naval Ambitions in Germany and the United States before World War I

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450402
eISBN:
9780801463884
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450402.003.0008
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter explores how the two naval elites strove to position themselves as the organizing center of a warfare state and to minimize their subjection to civilian control in maritime matters, ... More


The Doctrine of Civilian Control 1

A.G. Noorani

in CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTIONS AND CITIZENS' RIGHTS: An Omnibus Comprising Constitutional Questions in India and Citizens' Rights, Judges and State Accountability

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195678291
eISBN:
9780199080588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195678291.003.0116
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

There is a unanimous agreement that the principle of civilian control takes precedence over the armed forces. However, its implications are not well understood by politicians and bureaucrats. This is ... More


The Absent Dialogue: Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Military in India

Anit Mukherjee

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190905903
eISBN:
9780190069223
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190905903.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Civilian control over the military is widely hailed as among the biggest successes of India’s democracy. This is a rarity, especially among postcolonial states, and is rightfully celebrated. But has ... More


Revolutions and Coups

Amy Austin Holmes

in Coups and Revolutions: Mass Mobilization, the Egyptian Military, and the United States from Mubarak to Sisi

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190071455
eISBN:
9780190071486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190071455.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Comparative Politics

Because the revolution in Egypt was directed at the state, it is important to properly conceptualize the state apparatus and the regime that ruled it. Thus, chapter 2 provides an overview of the ... More


A New Administration

David P. Oakley

in Subordinating Intelligence: The DoD/CIA Post-Cold War Relationship

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780813176703
eISBN:
9780813176727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813176703.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

Many former Republican hands returned to positions of influence with the election of George W. Bush. These individuals had been involved in previous Intelligence Community reform efforts and returned ... More


To Manzanar

Eileen H. Tamura

in In Defense of Justice: Joseph Kurihara and the Japanese American Struggle for Equality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252037788
eISBN:
9780252095061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252037788.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the forced removal and incarceration of the Nikkei. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. With a stroke of his pen, and without ... More


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