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Organizational Responsibility

Neta C. Crawford

in Accountability for Killing: Moral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199981724
eISBN:
9780199369942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981724.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, American Politics

The preparation for and waging of war is a social system entailing structural requirements and effects, as well as having implications for individual agency. The chapter makes a short detour to ... More


International War Supervenes: March 1998–June 1999

The Independent International Commission on Kosovo

in The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243099
eISBN:
9780191599538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243093.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Discusses the aims and the conduct of the NATO bombing campaign against the Yugoslavia; the refugee crisis and civilian casualties of the campaign; and the diplomatic events leading to the final ... More


Iraqi Body Count: A Case Study in the Uses of Incident-Based Conflict Casualty Data

John Sloboda, Hamit Dardagan, Michael Spagat, and Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter reviews the uses, merits, and limitations of incident-based casualty data, using the Iraq Body Count (IBC) database as an example. It outlines the characteristics, methods, and sources ... More


Counting the Dead: The Proportionality of Predation in Pakistan

Avery Plaw

in Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199926121
eISBN:
9780199345656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199926121.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Since June 2004 the Central Intelligence Agency is widely reported to have carried out around 300 covert drone strikes in Northwest Pakistan which have killed more than 2000 people including some ... More


Understanding the Gulf between Public and US Government Estimates of Civilian Casualties in Covert Drone Strikes

Chris Woods

in Drones and the Future of Armed Conflict: Ethical, Legal, and Strategic Implications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226258058
eISBN:
9780226258195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226258195.003.0011
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Although the number of civilians killed by drone strikes has lessened in recent years, a significant discrepancy exists between public estimates of drone strike casualties and those acknowledged by ... More


Accountability for Killing: Moral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars

Neta Crawford

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199981724
eISBN:
9780199369942
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981724.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, American Politics

United States officials argued during America’s post-9-/11 wars that the US took every precaution to prevent unintended civilian death and injury — known as collateral damage — due to US military ... More


The Politics of Civilian Casualty Counts

Jay D. Aronson

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Civilian casualty recording and estimation is an extremely contentious endeavor. There is no scientific consensus on the validity and reliability of methods and techniques used to record and estimate ... More


Significant Numbers: Civilian Casualties and Strategic Peacebuilding

Taylor B. Seybolt

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter has two purposes. First, it traces the historical development of norms and rules of war as they relate to civilians, beginning with states’ original interest in helping combatants and ... More


Moving toward More Accurate Casualty Counts

Jay D. Aronson, Baruch Fischhoff, and Taylor B. Seybolt

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Accurate records and estimates of civilian casualties are essential to the strategic peacebuilding that should follow conflicts. Creating such casualty records requires strong political resolve and ... More


New Approaches to Reducing and Mitigating Harm to Civilians

Gregory S. McNeal

in Counterinsurgency Law: New Directions in Asymmetric Warfare

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199941445
eISBN:
9780190260170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199941445.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines new approaches to reducing and mitigating civilian harm in the United States's counterinsurgency (COIN) operations. It considers U.S. practice and theoretical and practical ... More


Edges of Policing

Jean‐Paul Brodeur

in The Policing Web

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199740598
eISBN:
9780199866083
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199740598.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Chapter 9 describes special types of policing, such as military policing and private extralegal protection. Depending on the political regime, military policing is conducted in markedly different ... More


Eliminating the Bulge

Peter Schrijvers

in The Unknown Dead: Civilians in the Battle of the Bulge

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813123523
eISBN:
9780813134826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813123523.003.0013
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter examines the Allied forces' efforts to flatten the “bulge” during the final stages of the Battle of the Bulge. The Allied offensive phase started in earnest on January 3, 1945, led by ... More


Robot Guardians: Teleoperated Combat Vehicles in Humanitarian Military Intervention

Zack Beauchamp and Julian Savulescu

in Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199926121
eISBN:
9780199345656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199926121.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Perhaps the most common criticism of teleoperated combat vehicles is that they make war more likely by reducing the associated costs. However, it is not as obvious as is usually presumed that this ... More


Introduction

Taylor B. Seybolt, Jay D. Aronson, and Baruch Fischhoff

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The introductory chapter establishes the importance of knowing how many people die in violent conflicts, and the challenges that must be met to create accurate accounts. To obtain reliable figures on ... More


MSE and Casualty Counts: Assumptions, Interpretation, and Challenges

Nicholas P. Jewell, Michael Spagat, and Britta L. Jewell

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Capture-recapture techniques, developed to estimate the size of wildlife populations, are now used in the enumeration of elusive human populations to account for the appearance of individuals on ... More


Terror and Terrorism

karin lofthus carrington and susan griffin

in Transforming Terror: Remembering the Soul of the World

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251021
eISBN:
9780520949454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251021.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Without acknowledging the broad range of suffering caused by terrorism, we cannot fully understand the current and serious threat we are facing in America today. This acknowledgment is also crucial ... More


Challenges to Counting and Classifying Victims of Violence in Conflict, Post-Conflict, and Non-Conflict Settings

Keith Krause

in Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199977307
eISBN:
9780199346172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977307.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Although improvements in the evidence base for analyzing armed violence are a positive development, critical exclusions and limitations to what and who is counted and how they are counted pose ... More


The Civilian in Modern War

Adam Roberts

in The Changing Character of War

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199596737
eISBN:
9780191803543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199596737.003.0020
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that the widely held view that civilians are worse off in today’s wars is flawed. It explores changes in the past two centuries in the roles and perceptions of the civilian. It ... More


. Obliteration Bombing, Civilian Casualties, and the Laws of War

George Anastaplo

in Reflections on Life, Death, and the Constitution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125336
eISBN:
9780813135243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125336.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter deals with the steady pounding that the by-then virtually undefended German cities were being subjected to by the American and British air forces. It notes that the civilian casualties ... More


Summary and Conclusions

Robert Eisen

in Religious Zionism, Jewish Law, and the Morality of War: How Five Rabbis Confronted One of Modern Judaism's Greatest Challenges

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780190687090
eISBN:
9780190687120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190687090.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter summarizes how the five rabbis dealt with the major issues this study focused on: which varieties of war in medieval Halakhah are still permitted, who has legitimate authority to wage ... More


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