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Kennedy's Civil Defense Gap, 1960–1964

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes John F. Kennedy's time as president, during a period considered the height of government and media hyperbole in support of civil defense measures. Kennedy advised citizens to ... More


Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Dee Garrison

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

At the dawn of the nuclear age, the US government was faced with an impossible task: to convince the American public that it could survive a nuclear attack. And so civil defense was born. Numerous ... More


“Alert, Not Alarm” The First Ten Years, 1945–1955

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses President Harry Truman's reluctant creation of the Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) in 1950 and the predominant role it assigned to women; the importance of the ... More


MAD, NUTS, and Civil Defense, 1963–1980

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter shows how after Kennedy's death, the new and greatly underfunded civil defense agency was moved to the Department of Defense, and the government no longer talked of bomb shelters. During ... More


The Fantasy Dies The Reagan Years

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter analyzes the second period of civil defense hype, which peaked in President Reagan's first term when he announced his seven-year, $4.2 billion plan for an expanded urban evacuation ... More


The Battle to Inform the Public, 1952–1957

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The period from 1954 to 1961 — from the Bravo H-bomb test to the time when civil defense received its highest support from government — was one of two well-known peak periods of anti-civil defense ... More


Holding the Lid On, 1957–1960

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses defense policies and peace movements from 1957 to 1960. Topics covered include Eisenhower's creation of the Gaither Committee to study the issues of civil defense, increasing ... More


Strategy for Survival

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes the evolution of the superpowers’ civil defense programs from the mid-1970s until the end of the Cold War. In the mid-1970s, the contrast between the USSR’s extensive civil ... More


On The Offensive

Steven Casey

in Selling the Korean War: Propaganda, Politics, and Public Opinion in the United States, 1950-1953

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195306927
eISBN:
9780199867936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306927.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

In the middle of September 1950, MacArthur's dramatic victory at Inchon transformed the Korean War. This chapter explores the problems thrown up by this victory. In the battlefield theater, the ... More


The Real Mineshaft Gap

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter tracks the development of U.S. and Soviet civil defense from the beginning of the 1960s until the mid-1970s. The 1961 Berlin Crisis compelled both superpowers to reinvigorate their civil ... More


Epilogue: From Bush to Bush: Final Gasp to Phoenix Rising

Dee Garrison

in Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183191
eISBN:
9780199788804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183191.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This epilogue discusses the death of civil defense proclaimed by President George H. W. Bush and then by President Bill Clinton, followed by its resurrection in 2001. The current Homeland Security ... More


The “Oh My God!” Phase

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the way in which the discovery of the fallout effects of thermonuclear weapons effected the development of American and Soviet civil defense during the mid-late 1950s. The ... More


The Window of Survivability

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Prior to the introduction of thermonuclear weapons in the mid-1950s, civil defense to protect civilian populations appeared relatively plausible. Despite these apparently favourable conditions, both ... More


Inauspicious Beginnings

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the development of civil defense in the United States and Soviet Union up until the early 1950s. The predecessors of civil defense first appeared during the 19th century, but it ... More


Introduction: Propaganda, Mobilization, and Survival

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This introduction describes the scope of the book and its methodological approach. It defines key concepts such as “civil defense,” “garrison state,” and “agitation” that are employed in the ... More


Conclusion: Insurance Forgone

Edward M. Geist

in Armageddon Insurance: Civil Defense in the United States and Soviet Union, 1945-1991

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781469645254
eISBN:
9781469645278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469645254.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This conclusion describes some general findings about the historical evolution of civil defense in the two superpowers over the course of the Cold War. Neither U.S. nor Soviet officials regarded ... More


Kentucky on Guard

Richard E. Holl

in Committed to Victory: The Kentucky Home Front During World War II

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780813165639
eISBN:
9780813166674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813165639.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Kentucky took prudent steps to prepare itself should Axis planes bomb the commonwealth. Measures were also taken to guard against enemy sabotage. A “better safe than sorry” mentality prevailed. In ... More


Mass Society, I

David Sorkin

in Jewish Emancipation: A History Across Five Centuries

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691164946
eISBN:
9780691189673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164946.003.0020
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter addresses how Europe became a mass society in the fin de siècle (1870–1914). Explosive population growth gave rise to major metropolises whose residents were divided by rank and ... More


United States

David Sorkin

in Jewish Emancipation: A History Across Five Centuries

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691164946
eISBN:
9780691189673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164946.003.0028
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter looks at how the Great Migration from eastern Europe made the United States a center of world Jewry. The Nazis' murder of most of European Jewry magnified that status. While the migrants ... More


Cold War Angst

Frank Biess

in German Angst: Fear and Democracy in the Federal Republic of Germany

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198714187
eISBN:
9780191782602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198714187.003.0004
Subject:
History, Cultural History, European Modern History

This chapter analyzes Cold War fears. The emotional politics of the West German Cold War consisted of a carefully calibrated balance between mobilizing fears of Communism and containing fears of a ... More


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