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Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Michael Bergmann

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence, or perhaps it must be reliably formed, ... More


A Contextual Model of Moral Justification

Alan Thomas

in Value and Context: The Nature of Moral and Political Knowledge

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780198250173
eISBN:
9780191604072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250177.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter develops an application of contextualism in the specific case of moral knowledge. The overall aim is the final vindication of a contextualist account of moral justification that supports ... More


Epistemic Circularity

Michael Bergmann

in Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

One prominent objection to externalism is that it commits its adherents to approving of epistemic circularity. This chapter explains and then responds to this objection by giving two arguments for ... More


Cartesian Skeptics

Janet Broughton

in Pyrrhonian Skepticism

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195169720
eISBN:
9780199786343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195169727.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay contrasts Descartes with three skeptical figures: the Doubting Pyrrhonist, the Agrippan Pyrrhonist, and the Cartesian Skeptic. It argues that the meditator in Descartes’s Meditations is ... More


Shared We-Attitudes

Raimo Tuomela

in The Philosophy of Sociality: The Shared Point of View

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195313390
eISBN:
9780199870929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313390.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on I-mode we-attitudes and develops several varieties of them. Basically, e.g. a we-goal is a goal that an agent has because the others in the group have it, under conditions of ... More


The Regress Objection

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is often claimed (e.g., by Swinburne, Armstrong, and Lowe) that the view that all natural properties are potencies leads to a vicious regress or circularity. The possible interpretations of this ... More


Legal officials, the rule of recognition, and international law

KEITH CULVER and MICHAEL GIUDICE

in Legality's Borders: An Essay in General Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195370751
eISBN:
9780199775903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370751.003.001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter analyzes the limits to Hart's account of an official-operated rule of recognition as an account of the existence and borders of legal systems. The argument is developed via assessment of ... More


Other Objections

Caroline Jenkins

in Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199231577
eISBN:
9780191716102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231577.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter considers objections to the proposal of the second part of the book which are not simply objections to the claim that our arithmetical concepts are empirically grounded. These include ... More


The Spectre of “Two Dogmas”

Gillian Russell

in Truth in Virtue of Meaning: A Defence of the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199232192
eISBN:
9780191715907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232192.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter responds to the two main arguments of Quine's paper ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’. It argues that Chapter 2's rejection of the language myth makes it easier to understand what is good or ... More


Validity and the Unprovability of Soundness

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter gives an initial discussion of the relation between validity and necessary truth-preservation. It argues that the so-called ‘soundness theorems’ of first order logic are misnamed, and ... More


Personal Identity and Memory

Sven Bernecker

in Memory: A Philosophical Study

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199577569
eISBN:
9780191722820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577569.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

When a memory content involves an indexical reference to the rememberer, the veridicality constraint on memory demands that the rememberer is numerically the same as the one who had the original ... More


Duplication

Sam Rohdie

in Film Modernism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781784992637
eISBN:
9781526104151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781784992637.003.0016
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

The multiple narratives are duplicates of each other that proceed in parallel and are simultaneous in time. There is no linear thread, but rather circularities and reversals that mirror each other.


Epistemic Circularity

Ernest Sosa

in Knowing Full Well

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691143972
eISBN:
9781400836918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691143972.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends the epistemic circularity involved in meta-aptness and thereby in the full aptness of knowing full well. It begins by explaining two forms of bootstrapping: the inference from ... More


Circularity?

Galen Strawson

in Locke on Personal Identity: Consciousness and Concernment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161006
eISBN:
9781400851843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161006.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines the charge of circularity or question-begging that has been leveled against John Locke's notion of personal identity. It first considers Locke's assumption, in raising the ... More


The Distinction between [P] and [S]

Galen Strawson

in Locke on Personal Identity: Consciousness and Concernment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161006
eISBN:
9781400851843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161006.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter examines the difference between John Locke's definition of a person [P], considered as a kind of thing, and his definition of a subject of experience of a certain sophisticated sort [S]. ... More


Inferential Knowledge

José L. Zalabardo

in Scepticism and Reliable Belief

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199656073
eISBN:
9780191742132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656073.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter addresses the following question: assuming that E provides adequate support for H, as explicated in Chapter 4, how would a subject have to be related to E and to the relationship between ... More


Modernity

Sam Rohdie

in Film Modernism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781784992637
eISBN:
9781526104151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781784992637.003.0033
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

Griffith’s editing spatialised time and Griffith established a tension between the temporal linearity of the narrative and the spatial simultaneity of his parallel alternating editing. One of the ... More


Descartes and Virtue Epistemology 1

Ernest Sosa

in Reason, Metaphysics, and Mind: New Essays on the Philosophy of Alvin Plantinga

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199766864
eISBN:
9780199932184
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766864.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter aims to provide an account of Descartes's project in the Meditations that will fit various passages in the text that are incompatible with earlier interpretations. It emerges that ... More


The Epistemology of Silence

Sanford C. Goldberg

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Epistemic disagreement is disagreement over epistemic principles, or principles concerning the reliability and extent of our epistemic methods. This chapter argues that disagreement over this sort ... More


Cartesian Skepticism, Content Externalism, and Self‐Knowledge

Anthony Brueckner

in Essays on Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585861
eISBN:
9780191595332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585861.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter provides a rather more informal treatment of the Putnamian anti-sceptical landscape and represents the author's current thinking on the matter.


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