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 The Origins and Evolution of Homo sapiens

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The notions of natural selection and drift also apply to humans and their biological and cultural evolution. The science of paleoanthropology explains human evolution through the study of ... More


Sexual Selection, Timing and an X–Y Homologous Gene: Did Homo Sapiens Speciate on the Y Chromosome?

Tim J. Crow

in The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263112
eISBN:
9780191734885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter provides a theory of the speciation of modern Homo sapiens, that a single gene played a critical role in the transition from a precursor species. The theory is founded upon the ... More


Do the Hominid-Specific Regions of X–Y Homology Contain Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in a Critical Event Linked to Speciation?

Carole A. Sargent, Patricia Blanco, and Nabeel A. Affara

in The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263112
eISBN:
9780191734885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.003.0013
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

It has been postulated that the critical events leading to major differences between humans and the great apes are associated with major changes on sex chromosomes. Regions of homology between the ... More


Clonality within the Individual

John C. Avise

in Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195369670
eISBN:
9780199871063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369670.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Although clonality is often discussed in reference to whole organisms, the phenomenon also applies to (and is underlain by) genetic processes operating within each individual. All forms of clonal ... More


Autoselection: selfish genetic elements

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Genetic elements that spread by parasitizing the replicative machinery of a host cell are common inhabitants of the genome, especially in multicellular sexual organisms. They show how genetic ... More


Extraordinary Population Structure among the Baining of New Britain

Jason A. Wilder and Michael F. Hammer

in Population Genetics, Linguistics, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195300307
eISBN:
9780199790142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300307.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines with four unlinked loci the extent of divergence between two linguistically related Baining groups in New Britain. Although they are linguistically related and are less than 100 ... More


Finding Our Roots: Did “Eve” Know “Adam”?

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Unlike most of our genes, mitochondrial DNA is transmitted solely by mothers; males are a dead-end for the mitochondria. Evolutionary biologists have determined that the most recent common ancestor ... More


Raccoon dogs: Finnish and Japanese raccoon dogs—on the road to speciation?

Kaarina Kauhala and Midori Saeki

in The Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515562
eISBN:
9780191705632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515562.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Japanese raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) have been isolated from populations (e.g., N. p. ussuriensis) on mainland Asia for about 12,000 years. Since the environment and climate ... More


Cytogenetics and large scale structural genomic variation

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Cytogenetics has played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of human genetic variation. Advances in this field are set in a historical context, describing the microscopically visible ... More


Sex Differences in the Brain: What’s Old and What’s New?

Margaret M. McCarthy and Arthur P. Arnold

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The study of sex differences in the brain has a long, rich history and remains a vibrant and controversial topic that is central to the field of neuroscience both for its obvious relevance and its ... More


Research and Methodological Issues in the Study of Sex Differences and Hormone-Behavior Relations

Lisa A. Eckel, Arthur P. Arnold, Elizabeth Hampson, Jill B. Becker, Jeffrey D. Blaustein, and James P. Herman

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter provides a conceptual and methodological overview of relevant issues in sex differences/sexual differentiation research, and provides guidance to investigators studying the role of sex ... More


A Genetic or Immunological Mechanism Underlying Homosexuality?

Jacques Balthazart

in The Biology of Homosexuality

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199838820
eISBN:
9780199919512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838820.003.0052
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic, Development

This chapter reviews studies on genetic mechanisms (control of predispositions) depending on the interaction of several genes that may play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These ... More


The evolution of sex chromosomes

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The chromosomes carrying the genes that determine sexes or mating types often show strong heteromorphy. This chapter discusses the evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes, from the initial ... More


Chromosomes and the Clinic

Soraya de Chadarevian

in Heredity under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780226685083
eISBN:
9780226685250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226685250.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The confirmation of the new chromosome count in 1956 was followed by a string of spectacular observations that linked unusual chromosome images with particular syndromes, including most famously the ... More


Intersexuality and the Law: Why Sex Matters

Julie A. Greenberg

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814731895
eISBN:
9780814738610
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814731895.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The term “intersex” evokes diverse images, typically of people who are both male and female or neither male nor female. Neither vision is accurate. The millions of people with an intersex condition, ... More


Heredity under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome

Soraya de Chadarevian

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780226685083
eISBN:
9780226685250
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226685250.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The book is about chromosomes and the study of human heredity in the second half of the twentieth century. Today chromosomes are viewed as macromolecular assemblies and are analyzed with an array of ... More


Save the Males!

Sarah S. Richardson

in Sex Itself: The Search for Male and Female in the Human Genome

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226084688
eISBN:
9780226084718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226084718.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Bringing about sweeping transformations in cultural gender roles and expectations, the feminist movement has also changed the backdrop of conventional ideas about gender. This cultural change now ... More


X and Y

Soraya de Chadarevian

in Heredity under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780226685083
eISBN:
9780226685250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226685250.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Many of the early observations on unusual chromosome pictures concerned the number of sex chromosomes. Chapter 3 argues that a combination of technical, bio-medical, and cultural reasons were ... More


Of Chromosomes and DNA

Soraya de Chadarevian

in Heredity under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780226685083
eISBN:
9780226685250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226685250.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Having mapped the scope of human chromosome studies in the postwar era, chapter 5 addresses the relation between microscope-based and molecular approaches to human heredity. In particular, it ... More


Ancestry Testing and DNA: Uses, Limits, and Caveat Emptor

Troy Duster

in Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156974
eISBN:
9780231527699
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156974.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter explores the increasing direct consumer use of DNA tests for ancestry tracing as well as its capacities and limits. It also examines the use of Ancestral Informative Markers (AIMs) as a ... More


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