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ENERGY AND ENTROPY FACTORS IN REACTION VELOCITY

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the role of energy and entropy in chemical reactions. Topics covered include chain reactions, branching chains, catalysis, and the development of chemical kinetics.


ATMOSPHERIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The physical and chemical processes that determine atmospheric composition are examined. The continuity equation for the vertical distribution of molecular species is developed, including molecular ... More


PROPAGATION OF CHEMICAL CHANGE

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the propagation of chemical reactions. Topics covered include attack by a gas on a solid, the kinetics of crystal growth, polycondensation reactions, periodic precipitation, ... More


THE ORGANIC WORLD

C.N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses living matter. Topics covered include the creation of order by living things, the place of chemistry in the study of cell phenomena, bacteria, the law of growth, linked enzyme ... More


Basic Concepts of Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter covers some basic concepts that constitute the pillars of any artificial chemistry. Starting with principles of computational modeling and simulation, we then move on to some notions of ... More


Reactive Flows

Raymond Brun

in Introduction to Reactive Gas Dynamics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199552689
eISBN:
9780191720277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552689.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes the chemical reactions occurring in high temperature gas flows from a macroscopic point of view. In equilibrium conditions, the law of mass action is established and examples ... More


SOME TYPICAL REACTION MECHANISMS

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses mechanisms of chemical reactions. Topics covered include first-order reactions, second-order reactions, reactions with fractional orders, third-order reactions, unimolecular ... More


Chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Building on the previous chapter, this chapter examines gas phase chemical equilibrium, and the equilibrium constant. This chapter takes a rigorous, yet very clear, ‘first principles’ approach, ... More


Material Activity

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Eighteenth‐century matter theory—primarily the study of electricity, magnetism, pneumatics, chemistry, and physiology—appears as a network of different kinds of practice having no intrinsic ... More


Chemical Energy

E. C. Pielou

in The Energy of Nature

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226668062
eISBN:
9780226668055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226668055.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

Nearly every solid material on earth consists of chemical compounds, sometimes only one, sometimes several together. Solid substances composed of single elements uncombined with others are rarities; ... More


A Little Bit of Chemistry

Lawrence E. Hunter

in The Processes of Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013055
eISBN:
9780262255288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013055.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter describes some concepts in chemistry necessary to get started in the understanding of molecular biology. It discusses the concepts of matter, chemical reactions, organic chemistry, ... More


Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Biochemical Networks

Mustafa Khammash

in Control Theory and Systems Biology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013345
eISBN:
9780262258906
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013345.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter introduces types of stochastic modeling used to address the probabilistic nature of processes. It reviews some of the key approaches for this modeling and considers the analysis of ... More


Stochastic Modeling of Intracellular Kinetics

Johan Paulsson and Johan Elf

in System Modeling in Cellular Biology: From Concepts to Nuts and Bolts

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262195485
eISBN:
9780262257060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195485.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

This chapter discusses some theoretical aspects of randomness in simple genetic and metabolic networks, including both general mathematical techniques and specific biological phenomena. The chapter ... More


Second Entropy for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

Phil Attard

in Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662760
eISBN:
9780191745287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662760.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The second entropy for fluctuating hydrodynamics is maximised to obtain the equations of hydrodynamics (Navier-Stokes, energy, mass flow). The approach is an extension of the Landau and Lifshitz ... More


Lattice Boltzmann for reactive flows

Sauro Succi

in The Lattice Boltzmann Equation: For Complex States of Flowing Matter

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199592357
eISBN:
9780191847967
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199592357.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The dynamics of reactive flows lies at the heart of several important applications, such as combustion, heterogeneous catalysis, pollutant conversion, pattern formation in biology and many others. In ... More


Building an Unseen Structure

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

From 1856 to 1858, August Kekulé worked as a lecturer in Heidelberg, Germany, during which he published ideas that had been developing in his head since he was in London. His theory proposed how ... More


Turning Waste into Wealth: On Bones, Stocks, and Sauce Reductions

Job Ubbink

in The Kitchen as Laboratory: Reflections on the Science of Food and Cooking

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153454
eISBN:
9780231526920
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153454.003.0027
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter describes the key physical and chemical steps in the preparation of stock and sauce reductions. The process of stock making and reduction to a demi-glace consists of three steps. The ... More


Autobiography and the Narrator

Nancy Harrowitz (ed.)

in Answering Auschwitz: Primo Levi's Science and Humanism after the Fall

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780823233588
eISBN:
9780823241811
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823233588.003.0015
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

The critical reception of Levi as an author most approvingly points to his objectivity, his “dispassionate” witnessing, and his ability to universalize, to delineate, and to explore a broad ... More


The Absolute Sensitivity of the Human Sense of Smell

Vries Hessel De and Stuiver Minze

in Sensory Communication

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262518420
eISBN:
9780262314213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262518420.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter discusses the high sensitivity of the sense organs, particularly the sensitivity of the human sense of smell. It is shown here that the olfactory cells respond to one single odorous ... More


Toward a Science of Living Things

in The Man Who Flattened the Earth: Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226793603
eISBN:
9780226793627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226793627.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Questions about the relation of soul to body, or mind to matter, and the definition of life itself, provided fertile ground for cultivating an identity as a savant and as a man of the world. ... More


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