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When Character Displacement Occurs

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

in Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Clarifying the facilitators of character displacement is crucial for illuminating the origins of diversity. Six non–mutually exclusive factors are important: (1) standing variation; (2) strong ... More


Discovery of A Unifying Principle

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

in Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

To explain biodiversity, Darwin proposed that organisms face recurring competition for scarce resources, and that such competition favors individuals least like their competitors. This evolutionary ... More


Major Themes and Unsolved Problems

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

in Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Character displacement is well supported theoretically and empirically, and it plays a key, and often decisive, role in generating and maintaining biodiversity. Yet a number of important issues ... More


Adaptive Diversification Due to Resource Competition in Asexual Models

Michael Doebeli

in Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128931
eISBN:
9781400838936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128931.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter focuses on evolutionary branching in niche position due to frequency-dependent competition. When the majority phenotype of a population is competing for one type of resource, selection ... More


Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Among evolutionary biology's most persistent challenges is the challenge to explain why there are so many different species and why they tend to differ in ecologically relevant traits. This book, ... More


Ecological Character Displacement

Dolph Schluter

in Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0027
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Ecological character displacement is phenotypic evolution wrought or maintained by resource competition between species. By resource competition, I mean the negative impact of one species (or ... More


Diversity And Novelty Within Species

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

in Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Intraspecific competition can have a profound influence on shaping diversity within species. Intraspecific competition can promote niche-width expansion, sexual dimorphism, and resource or mating ... More


Evolution of Ecomorphological Diversity

Jonathan B. Losos

in Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255913
eISBN:
9780520943735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255913.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents the phylogenetic analysis of evolutionary diversification within anole ecomorphs, addressing whether the phylogenetic relationships among the ecomorph classes are the same ... More


The Niche Concept

Eric Post

in Ecology of Climate Change: The Importance of Biotic Interactions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148472
eISBN:
9781400846139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148472.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the niche concept. One of the earliest applications of the niche theory in quantitative ecology addressed the seemingly simple question of the extent to which the niches of two ... More


The Geography of Speciation and Character Displacement

Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

in Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157689
eISBN:
9781400881192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines how phylogenetic approaches can address both ecological character displacement and community-wide character displacement. In ecological character displacement, selection might ... More


Divergence, Sensory Drive, and Speciation

Martin Stevens

in Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199601776
eISBN:
9780191774782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199601776.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Sensory and communication systems are crucial in leading to divergence between populations. This chapter discusses the role of the environment, sensory systems, and signals in divergence between ... More


The Evolution of Body Size in Noctilionoid Bats

Norberto P. Giannini, Lucila I. Amador, and R. Leticia Moyers Arévalo

in Phyllostomid Bats: A Unique Mammalian Radiation

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226696126
eISBN:
9780226696263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226696263.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Body mass is the single most important factor affecting the biology of animals. Small size is generally highly favorable for flying vertebrates; in addition to this constraint, echolocating bats are ... More


Are flowers under selective pressure to increase pollinator attention?

Beverley Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering, Second Edition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199661596
eISBN:
9780191779473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661596.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

The underlying assumption of much of the work on flower development and morphology is that these features serve to increase the attractiveness of the flower to pollinating animals, thus maximizing ... More


Species Sorting in Communities

Jonathan M. Chase and Mathew A. Leibold

in Ecological Niches: Linking Classical and Contemporary Approaches

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226101798
eISBN:
9780226101811
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226101811.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ecologists have wrestled with a number of methods to study more complex communities, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. This chapter illustrates how the niche concept can contribute. ... More


Biodiversity and Biogeography of Deserts

David Ward

in The Biology of Deserts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780198732754
eISBN:
9780191796982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732754.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Productivity–diversity relationships have been well studied in some deserts and have helped us to understand the factors controlling ecosystem function at a large spatial scale. Studies of ... More


Why Species?

Thomas N. Sherratt and David M. Wilkinson

in Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199548606
eISBN:
9780191917769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199548606.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

In this chapter, we will attempt to address several interrelated questions about species and species formation. First we ask what, if anything, is a species? As we shall see, while most scientists ... More


Ecological Specialization and Generalization

Douglas J. Futuyma

in Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0019
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Anyone who is even slightly acquainted with plants or animals knows that different species inhabit different parts of the world, live in different habitats, and, in the case of animals, eat some ... More


Spatial Variations in Sediment Systems

John S. Gray and Michael Elliott

in Ecology of Marine Sediments: From Science to Management

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198569015
eISBN:
9780191916717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198569015.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

In this chapter the primary emphasis is on spatial scales of disturbances, and we will follow on from our earlier discussions on the mechanisms of competition and predation and the controversy over ... More


Population regulation and the ecological niche

Liz Pásztor, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Czárán, and Géza Meszéna

in Theory-Based Ecology: A Darwinian approach

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199577859
eISBN:
9780191823787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577859.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

On the basis of the theory of robust coexistence the ecological niche—one of the most controversial concepts in ecology—can be appropriately defined and operationalized. Abstract definitions for the ... More


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