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Noncortical systems in speaking

Doreen Kimura

in Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195054927
eISBN:
9780199872268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195054927.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter shows that functional brain asymmetry for the control of speech production is present in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, but not in the cerebral cortex. It appears to be ... More


Habits, Skills, and Procedural Memory

Howard Eichenbaum and Neal J. Cohen

in From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection: Memory systems of the brain

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195178043
eISBN:
9780199871223
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178043.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the distinct pathways critical to the acquisition of habits — that aspect of motor skill learning that refers to acquired, stereotyped, and unconscious behavioral repertoires. ... More


Neurophysiological Mechanisms

Mark L. Latash

in Synergy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333169
eISBN:
9780199864195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

The seventh part of this book deals with possible neurophysiological mechanisms involved in motor synergies. It starts with a discussion of the structure-function controversy in neurophysiology. ... More


Evolution of the Cerebellar Sense of Self

John Montgomery and David Bodznick

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198758860
eISBN:
9780191834752
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198758860.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The cerebellum is an intriguing component of the brain. In humans, it occupies only 10% of the brain volume, yet has approximately 69 billion neurons, i.e. 80% of the nerve cells in the brain! A ... More


Control of Eye Movements

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

There are eye movements to place objects of interest onto the fovea (saccades and vergence), and to keep it there (smooth pursuit, fixation, optokinetic, and vestibular). Signals converge onto the ... More


Structure and Function of Brain Systems for Conscious and Nonconscious Representation

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

in The Brain's Representational Power: On Consciousness and the Integration of Modalities

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029315
eISBN:
9780262330121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029315.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Given the limitations of current models, this chapter takes us back to the structure and functioning of brain regions themselves, focussing first on on systems considered important for understanding ... More


Delta Glutamate Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The δ glutamate receptors, δ1 and δ2 (GluRδl and GluRδ2), were cloned more than 10 years ago and, on the basis of amino acid sequence similarity, were classified as ionotropic glutamate receptors ... More


Thomas Willis: The Functional Organization of the Brain

Stanley Finger

in Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Thomas Willis was born in England twenty-five years after the birth of René Descartes. Willis can be considered the first of the new breed of medical physiologists who were more influenced by ... More


Neuronal Activity in Motor Cortex and Related Areas

Lee E. Miller and Nicholas Hatsopoulos

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter is organized into six sections. The first four discuss the anatomy and functional roles of the brain areas that are most relevant to the development of brain-computer interface ... More


Recognizing the Sensory Consequences of One’s Own Actions and Delusions of Control

SARAH-JAYNE BLAKEMORE

in The Lost Self: Pathologies of the Brain and Identity

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195173413
eISBN:
9780199865758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173413.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter examines schizophrenia and agency. In schizophrenic patients there is a tendency to misattribute behaviors initiated by the self to an external agent. The chapter describes experimental ... More


The Cerebellum and the Vestibular System

Jay M. Goldberg, Victor J. Wilson, Kathleen E. Cullen, Dora E. Angelaki, Dianne M. Broussard, Jean A. Büttner-Ennever, Kikuro Fukushima, and Lloyd B. Minor

in The Vestibular System: A Sixth Sense

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195167085
eISBN:
9780199932153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167085.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The cerebellum is critical for proper timing and patterning during voluntary movements. In conjunction with the vestibular system, it also modulates the motor pathways that control balance and gaze. ... More


The Anatomist’s Eye

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

After an adventurous boyhood, Ramon y Cajal is persuaded by his father to study medicine. Inspired by the results of the Golgi staining method, he commences a thorough study of the structure of the ... More


A Brain System for Procedural Memory

Howard Eichenbaum

in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195141740
eISBN:
9780199865741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195141740.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Researchers have divided procedural memory into two general types. One type involves the acquisition of habits and skills, the capacity for a very broad variety of stereotyped and unconscious ... More


From: Recuerdos de mi vida. Volume 2, Historia de mi labor científica, Chapter 21, Pages 516–546

S. Ramón Y Cajal

in Cajal's Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195065169
eISBN:
9780199847242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195065169.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

The investigations undertaken during the triennium 1910–1912 were quite diverse, being dispersed over many and varied topics. The harvest of acquisition in the field of the spinal cord degeneration ... More


Error-correcting networks: perceptrons, the delta rule, backpropagation of error in multilayer networks, and reinforcement learning algorithms

Edmund T. Rolls and Alessandro Treves

in Neural Networks and Brain Function

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524328
eISBN:
9780191724466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524328.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter describes the so-called error-correcting neural networks that are capable of mapping a set of inputs to a set of required outputs using correction when errors are made. These networks do ... More


Motor systems: cerebellum and basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls and Alessandro Treves

in Neural Networks and Brain Function

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524328
eISBN:
9780191724466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524328.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter examines the cerebellum and basal ganglia, two non-neocortical brain systems involved in different aspects of the control of movement. The cerebellum has a remarkably regular neural ... More


Abnormal Timing of Antagonist Splenius Burst in Head Movements of Patients with Cerebellar Disorders: Clinical and Modeling Results

Wolfgang H. Zangemeister, Jürgen Dee, and Andreas C. Arlt

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0114
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The objective of this study is to understand the role of the cerebellum with respect to the generating process and timing of the motor control signals. The model for simulation of head movements ... More


Role of the cerebellum in locomotor coordination

G. N. Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and S. Grillner

in Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524052
eISBN:
9780191724497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter analyses the role of the cerebellum in locomotor coordination. Different brain motor centres participate in the correction and modulation of the motor patterns generated by the spinal ... More


Computational Theories and their Implementation in the Brain: The legacy of David Marr

Lucia M. Vaina and Richard E. Passingham (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198749783
eISBN:
9780191831638
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749783.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

In the late 1960s and early 1970s David Marr produced three astonishing papers in which he gave a detailed account of how the fine structure and known cell types of the cerebellum, hippocampus and ... More


The motor hierarchy: from kinematics to goals and intentions

Antonia F de C. Hamilton and Scott T. Grafton

in Sensorimotor Foundations of Higher Cognition

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199231447
eISBN:
9780191696510
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231447.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the different levels of the motor hierarchy within the same stimulus using a recently developed one-back paradigm for inducing repetition suppression in response to observed ... More


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