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Causes-of-Effects versus Effects-of-Causes

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines two approaches used in social science research: the “causes-of-effects” approach and the “effects-of-causes” approach. The quantitative and qualitative cultures differ in the ... More


Causation and Laws of Nature

Storrs McCall

in A Model of the Universe: Space-Time, Probability, and Decision

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198236221
eISBN:
9780191679209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236221.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter focuses on the notion of cause in scientific philosophy and discusses David Hume's doctrine of ideas. Instead of finding the original of the idea of efficacy, power, or necessary ... More


Primary and Secondary

Denise Meyerson

in False Consciousness

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198248194
eISBN:
9780191681073
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198248194.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter shows that the best way to understand the determination of ideological beliefs by economic relationships is to see ideological beliefs as explained by their serviceability. According to ... More


Introduction

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.21
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This introductory chapter begins with a brief description of the purpose of the book, which is to present a system of critical appraisal to help with the evaluation of studies in the health and ... More


Causation and Common Sense

H. L. A. Hart

in Causation in the Law

Published in print:
1985
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198254744
eISBN:
9780191681523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198254744.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter describes certain salient features of the central notion of causation and shows how analogies with these characterize the common-sense identification of causes in a wider field and the ... More


Causality and Imputation

Hans Kelsen

in General Theory of Norms

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198252177
eISBN:
9780191681363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198252177.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Causality and imputation are two different kinds of functional connection, two different ways in which two states of affairs can be connected together as condition and consequence. The difference ... More


Causality and Time

W. Norris Clarke, SJ

in The Creative Retrieval of Saint Thomas Aquinas: Essays in Thomistic Philosophy, New and Old

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823229284
eISBN:
9780823236671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823229284.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

This chapter discusses the relation between causality and temporal sequence. Does the relation of cause to effect involve a temporal priority of cause as cause over its effect? That case is widely ... More


Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Dan Sperber, David Premack, and Ann James Premack (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

An understanding of cause-effect relationships is fundamental to the study of cognition. In this book, chapters based on comparative psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, ... More


Time Out of Mind: Kant’s System of Principles of Pure Understanding

Waxman Wayne

in Kant's Anatomy of the Intelligent Mind

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199328314
eISBN:
9780199369348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199328314.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Chapter 17 deals with Kant’s system of principles of pure understanding, focusing particularly on the three Analogies of Experience. It relates the first two Analogies to Hume by taking the linear ... More


Study designs which can demonstrate and test causation

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.02
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part describes the key study designs used in clinical and epidemiological studies of causation. The designs are defined by two features: whether the ... More


It’s All in a Good Cause

Peter J. Steinberger

in The Problem with God: Why Atheists, True Believers, and Even Agnostics Must All Be Wrong

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231163545
eISBN:
9780231535205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231163545.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter considers the notion that we must think about things in terms of cause and effect. Everything that exists must have been caused to exist by something other than itself. Everything, in ... More


The diagnosis of causation

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a scheme for assessing causal relationships in human health. The approach is that the diagnosis of causation depends on the consideration of both causal and non-causal ... More


Putting it All Together: Communicating Data for Public Health Impact

David E. Nelson, Bradford W. Hesse, and Robert T. Croyle

in Making Data Talk: The Science and Practice of Translating Public Health Research and Surveillance Findings to Policy Makers, the Public, and the Press

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195381535
eISBN:
9780199864782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381535.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the Organize, Plan, Test, and Integrate (OPT-In) framework and provides practical examples for its use. Organization consists of conducting a research review and research ... More


The importance of causal relationships in medicine and health care

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.01
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the concept of causation. Topics covered include definition and types of causation, a direct test of causation (the randomized trial), and methods of counting events. Self-test ... More


Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Mark Elwood

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book presents a logical system of critical appraisal, and facilitates studies to be evaluated and carried out effectively. This system emphasizes the central importance of cause and effect ... More


Resisting History: Religious Transcendence and the Invention of the Unconscious

Rhodri Hayward

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719074141
eISBN:
9781781700778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719074141.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Religion

How can historians make sense of visions, hauntings and demonic possession? Do miraculous events have any place in a world governed by cause and effect? This book examines the cumulative attempts of ... More


A Thousand Words Is Worth a Picture: The Experiment of On Genesis, Against the Manichees

Michael Cameron

in Christ Meets Me Everywhere: Augustine’s Early Figurative Exegesis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199751297
eISBN:
9780199950584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751297.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Augustine deployed Ambrose's insight about Scripture's rhetorical character to refute the Manichees' dismissal of the “carnal” Old Testament. His first effort at biblical commentary demonstrated how ... More


 When Science Teaching Becomes a Subversive Activity

Pervez Hoodbhoy

in Scientific Values and Civic Virtues

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195172256
eISBN:
9780199835546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195172256.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes the unfortunate effects of attempts in Pakistan to produce Islamic science, promoted in part by Western authors such as Maurice Bucaille. Islamic fundamentalism is extremely ... More


The Problem with God

Peter J. Steinberger

in The Problem with God: Why Atheists, True Believers, and Even Agnostics Must All Be Wrong

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231163545
eISBN:
9780231535205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231163545.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This book offers a philosophical reflection on the existence—and nonexistence—of God. It argues that talking about God is like talking about nothing at all. It starts with the fact that most human ... More


Causal Reasoning, Historical Logic, and Sociological Explanation

Lyn Spillman

in Self, Social Structure, and Beliefs: Explorations in Sociology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520241367
eISBN:
9780520937857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520241367.003.0014
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

This chapter elaborates on the multidimensional approach to beliefs. It suggests that Smelser's insistence on flow and process might be viewed as introducing a new and non-structural approach to ... More


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