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Causal Learning

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter offers a selection of theories of causal learning. Some of the theories come out of psychology, while others come out of rational analyses of causal learning. All tend to focus on how ... More


Causality and Conceptual Structure

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The objects that we select and how we put them together depend on our current goals, the task before us, and on our language and culture. It may be argued that concepts are not fixed, stable entities ... More


Causal Structure and Mechanisms

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explicates the connection between the qualitative concept of a mechanism and the probabilistic causal concepts described in the previous chapter. The main thesis is that, for a broad ... More


 Decision Making via Causal Consequences

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter discusses how we make decisions. Topics covered include the gambling metaphor, Newcomb's paradox, and people's concern about causal structure. It is argued that in general, both ... More


The Evolutionary Origins of Causal Cognition: Learning and Using Causal Structures

Brian J. Edwards, Benjamin M. Rottman, and Laurie R. Santos

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter explores the origins of our species' drive to explain the causal world. It begins by reviewing the types of information that humans use to learn causal structures. Specifically, it ... More


Beyond Covariation: Cues to Causal Structure

David A. Lagnado, Michael R. Waldmann, York Hagmaye, and Steven A. Sloman

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Causal induction has two components: learning about the structure of causal models and learning about causal strength and other quantitative parameters. This chapter argues for several interconnected ... More


Realization and Extended Cognition

Robert D. Rupert

in Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195379457
eISBN:
9780199869114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379457.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter addresses a realization-based interpretation of the extended approach. On this view, cognitive states are states of an organismically bounded cognitive system, yet may still have ... More


Counterfactuals and causal structure

Kevin D. Hoover

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0016
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The structural account of causation derives inter alia from Herbert Simon's work on causal order and was developed in Hoover's Causality in Macroeconomics and earlier articles. The structural account ... More


Causality: Production and Propagation

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The original version of this chapter was published long before the author's conversion to a conserved or invariant theory of causality as presented in “Causality and Counterfactuals” (Chapter 16); ... More


Dis‐interpretation

Gregory Currie

in Narratives and Narrators: A Philosophy of Stories

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199282609
eISBN:
9780191712432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282609.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter provides an example of narration from an ironic point of view: Hitchcock's The Birds. It considers the roles of various devices in the expression of this point of view: the use of point ... More


The bendable‐tool and tool-construction problems: the question of tool modification

Daniel J. Povinelli, James E. Reaux, Laura A. Teall, and Steve Giambrone

in Folk Physics for Apes: The Chimpanzee's theory of how the world works

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198572190
eISBN:
9780191584978
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198572190.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter presents the results of experiments that were undertaken to determine if the chimpanzees' ability to modify tools reflects an underlying appreciation of the causal structure of the ... More


The Causal Structure of the Economy

Christopher Dow

in Major Recessions: Britain and the World 1920-1995

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241231
eISBN:
9780191596179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241236.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Any such study as this one on recessions necessarily makes assumptions about the causal structure of the economy, and about the nature of underemployment or overfull employment. These involve ... More


Reforming Science

in Reforming Philosophy: A Victorian Debate on Science and Society

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226767338
eISBN:
9780226767352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226767352.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter discusses the controversy between Mill and Whewell over the confirmation of scientific theories. This debate is related to their differing opinions over the nature of inductive inference ... More


Abstraction and Representational Capacity in Computational Structures

Michael Weisberg

in The Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190212308
eISBN:
9780190212322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190212308.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Michael Weisberg’s book Simulation and Similarity argued that although mathematical models are sometimes described in narrative form, they are best understood as interpreted mathematical structures. ... More


An Alternative Gospel of Structure: Order, Composition, Processes

Bob Coecke

in Quantum Physics and Linguistics: A Compositional, Diagrammatic Discourse

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199646296
eISBN:
9780191747847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646296.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

We survey some basic mathematical structures, which arguably are more primitive than the structures taught at school. These structures are orders, with or without composition, and (symmetric) ... More


Basic Premises and Method

Alec D. Walen

in The Mechanics of Claims and Permissible Killing in War

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190872045
eISBN:
9780190872076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190872045.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The reigning method in moral philosophy is the search for reflective equilibrium. An interesting feature of contemporary moral philosophy is how much weight most theorists put on matching intuitions ... More


Intervening Agency and the Right of Non-Sacrifice

Alec D. Walen

in The Mechanics of Claims and Permissible Killing in War

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190872045
eISBN:
9780190872076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190872045.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter argues for the extension of an idea from the previous chapter, that of a right of non-sacrifice. It argues that this right exists in certain cases of intervening agency: when the ... More


Geodesics

Steven Carlip

in General Relativity: A Concise Introduction

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198822158
eISBN:
9780191861215
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822158.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The generalization of a “straight line” in Euclidean geometry is a geodesic, the shortest distance between two points in a (possibly curved) space or spacetime. This chapter introduces geodesics, ... More


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