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The diagnosis of causation

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a scheme for assessing causal relationships in human health. The approach is that the diagnosis of causation depends on the consideration of both causal and non-causal ... More


Afterword

David Premack and Ann James Premack

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The two conflicting traditions of causality in psychology are both represented in the book: the arbitrary tradition of Hume in which causality is learned, and the natural tradition of Michotte, in ... More


Perception and Its Proper Objects

Stephen Everson

in Aristotle on Perception

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238638
eISBN:
9780191597374
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238630.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Everson discusses the five senses and their proper objects; e.g. sound for hearing, colour for sight. The senses, Everson argues, are essentially related to their proper objects because they are ... More


Causality at higher levels

Philip Pettit

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter analyses various types of causal relationships and argues for the legitimacy of causal claims at higher levels. First, it formulates the physicalist doctrine and discusses the ... More


The inverted- and broken-rake problems

Daniel J. Povinelli and James E. Reaux

in Folk Physics for Apes: The Chimpanzee's theory of how the world works

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198572190
eISBN:
9780191584978
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198572190.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter explores whether chimpanzees might exhibit a better a priori understanding of the causal aspects of tool use in a case where they only needed to attend to the interaction between the ... More


Keeping Track

Carolyn Price

in Functions in Mind: A Theory of Intentional Content

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199242009
eISBN:
9780191696992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242009.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter focuses on the capacities of relatively unsophisticated organisms. It discusses the long-standing philosophical debate concerning the relationship between the capacity to represent ... More


Critical appraisal of a large population-based case–control study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: large population-based case-control study entitled ‘Risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol ... More


Critical appraisal of a retrospective cohort study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.13
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a retrospective cohort study entitled ‘Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and ... More


Critical appraisal of a prospective cohort study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.12
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a prospective cohort study entitled ‘Long-term relation between breastfeeding and development of atopy and ... More


Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.14
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a small matched case-control study entitled ‘Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of ... More


Statistical Testing and the World's Contribution to Rationality

J. D. Trout

in Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195107661
eISBN:
9780199786152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195107667.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Many of the background theories in the social sciences and psychology are unreliable, and so theoretical improvement often requires the experimental strain of statistical predictions. Significance ... More


The Answer is Either “No” or “Yes”: Causality as a Categorical Concept

Peter V. Rabins

in The Why of Things: Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164726
eISBN:
9780231535458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164726.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses causality as a categorical concept. Computers are based on the idea that knowledge can be coded and stored in a binary or dichotomous fashion such that each information point ... More


Critical appraisal of a randomized clinical trial

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.10
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a randomized clinical trial entitled ‘Chloramphenicol treatment for acute infective conjunctivitis in ... More


The Nature of Epidemiologic Evidence

David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190243777
eISBN:
9780190243807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Assessing the contribution of epidemiologic studies starts with an appreciation of the goal. In addition to a purely descriptive goal of characterizing disease in the population, we are often ... More


Civil society

Katherine Fierlbeck

in Globalizing Democracy: Power, Legitimacy and the Interpretation of Democratic Ideas

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719049958
eISBN:
9781781701416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719049958.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter investigates the claim that a robust democracy depends upon the ability to ‘strengthen civil society’. It describes how and why civil society has come to be used so widely and with such ... More


Introduction

Peter V. Rabins

in The Why of Things: Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164726
eISBN:
9780231535458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164726.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This book offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality, such as why the Fukushima and Three Mile Island nuclear disasters occurred or why a person becomes depressed. ... More


The Informational Nature of Biological Causality

Alvaro Moreno and Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo

in Information and Living Systems: Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262201742
eISBN:
9780262295246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262201742.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the kind of organization that is required to support Darwinian evolution, with particular interest in the type of material mechanisms and causal relationships underlying that ... More


How Education Drives Demography and Knowledge Informs Projections

Wolfgang Lutz and Vegard Skirbekk

in World Population and Human Capital in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198703167
eISBN:
9780191772467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703167.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Chapter 2 makes the case for systematically adding education to age and sex as a third standard demographic dimension. It directly addresses the question of whether the pervasive association of ... More


Religion, Tolerance, and Intolerance: Views from Across the Disciplines

Russell Powell and Steve Clarke

in Religion, Intolerance, and Conflict: A Scientific and Conceptual Investigation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199640911
eISBN:
9780191753077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640911.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies, Religion and Society

This chapter examines the causal relationship between religion and tolerance. Is religion a cause of tolerance, is it a cause of intolerance, or do some aspects of religion cause tolerance while ... More


The Causal Relationship between Fertility and Infant Mortality: prospective analyses of a population in transition

Hillard Kaplan, Paul L. Hooper, Jonathan Stieglitz, and Michael Gurven

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines causal processes underlying change in demographic outcomes among the Tsimane of lowland Bolivia. Prospective data collected between 2002 and 2010 shows that the loss of an ... More


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