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Causal Learning

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter offers a selection of theories of causal learning. Some of the theories come out of psychology, while others come out of rational analyses of causal learning. All tend to focus on how ... More


 Causal Models

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

According to human perception, the world is full of causal systems composed of autonomous mechanisms that generate events as effects of other events. This chapter attempts to make this idea more ... More


 What Is a Cause?

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter discusses what causes are. It argues that causal relations are not the only kind of invariance useful for representing the world. There are various kinds of mathematical representations, ... More


Categorical Induction

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter focuses on how we induce properties of the world. Some psychologists have been coming back to the view that induction is mediated by causal models — causal models that are often ... More


 The Information Is in the Invariants

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter focuses on why cause matters. It argues that causal relations hold across space, time, and individuals; therefore, the logic of causality is the best guide to prediction, explanation, ... More


Facts, Causation, and Time

Michael Tooley

in Time, Tense, and Causation

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250746
eISBN:
9780191598623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250746.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Takes the objections that were discussed in the previous chapter as a starting‐point for arguing in favour of the dynamic view of the world that is defended in the book.It argues that satisfactory ... More


The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195107630
eISBN:
9780199852956
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195107630.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This book examines the three leading traditional solutions to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and human free will—those arising from Boethius, William of Ockham, and Luis de Molina. Though all ... More


Representing Causality

Christopher Peacocke

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

What is it to represent a relation as causal? The question has a wide interdisciplinary significance. The question itself has been at the centre of philosophical discussion from Hume onward; it is ... More


Foreknowledge, Causal Relations, and Subjunctive Conditionals

Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski

in The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195107630
eISBN:
9780199852956
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195107630.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

It is often thought that physical laws just are generalized subjunctive conditionals expressing relations between physical events. Metaphysical laws, on the other hand, seem to be more than the ... More


Generalist Theories of Causation

Michael S. Moore

in Causation and Responsibility: An Essay in Law, Morals, and Metaphysics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199256860
eISBN:
9780191719653
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256860.003.0019
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter returns to the metaphysics of the causal relation proper. It examines generalist theories of causation, theories that seek to reduce that relation between states of affairs tokens, to ... More


Detecting Causal Structure: The Role of Interventions in Infants’ Understanding of Psychological and Physical Causal Relations

Jessica A. Sommerville

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter argues that infants' experience of their own actions and the consequences that these actions have on the world play an important role in their developing understanding of causal ... More


Conclusion: Constructing Content

Carolyn Price

in Functions in Mind: A Theory of Intentional Content

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199242009
eISBN:
9780191696992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199242009.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This concluding chapter sums up the key findings of this study about intentional content. The findings suggests that there are not intentional norms in nature because there are no biological norms in ... More


Of Knowledge and Probability

Robert J. Fogelin

in Hume's Skeptical Crisis: A Textual Study

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195387391
eISBN:
9780199866489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387391.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter offers a quick tour of book 1, part 3 of the Treatise, a portion of the text where Hume sets forth what he takes to be some of his most important discoveries in his pursuit of a science ... More


The Nature of Epidemiologic Evidence

David A. Savitz

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the goals of epidemiologic research, which is the quantification of the causal relation between exposure and disease. It then discusses the measurement of ... More


Through a Floppy Tool Darkly: Toward a Conceptual Overthrow of Animal Alchemy

Daniel J. Povinelli and Derek C. Penn

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter attempts to show that claims that chimpanzees (and other animals) reason about the world in human-like ways are unfounded. In particular, it argues that only humans rely upon ‘higher ... More


Learning and the Infant Mind

Amanda Woodward and Amy Needham (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195301151
eISBN:
9780199894246
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301151.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

When asking how cognition comes to take its mature form, learning seems to be an obvious factor to consider. However, until quite recently, there has been very little contact between investigations ... More


Afterword

David Premack and Ann James Premack

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The two conflicting traditions of causality in psychology are both represented in the book: the arbitrary tradition of Hume in which causality is learned, and the natural tradition of Michotte, in ... More


Epistemic Humility and Causal Structuralism

James Van Cleve

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Rae Langton's book Kantian Humility offers a provocative interpretation of one of Kant's central theses and one of the arguments for it. The thesis is that we have no knowledge of things in ... More


The Lesser Trinitarian Treatises II: To Eustathius: On the Holy Trinity, To Ablabius: On Not Three Gods, and To the Greeks: Based on the Common Notions

Lucian Turcescu

in Gregory of Nyssa and the Concept of Divine Persons

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195174250
eISBN:
9780199835478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195174259.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter continues the analysis of divine persons begun in the previous chapter in some small Trinitarian treatises. Two new main elements are added to the description of a divine person: persons ... More


Infants’ Causal Learning: Intervention, Observation, Imitation

Andrew N. Meltzoff

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter shows that the perception of others' actions and production of self-action are mapped onto commensurate representations starting from birth. This allows infants not only to learn ... More


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