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Psychological Studies of Causal and Counterfactual Reasoning

James Woodward

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This paper explores some interconnections between studies of causal and counterfactual reasoning conducted by psychologists and treatments of causation and counterfactuals in the philosophical ... More


The Relationship between Children’s Causal and Counterfactual Judgements

Teresa McCormack, Caren Frosch, and Patrick Burns

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, we distinguish between two ways in which counterfactual and causal judgements might be linked. According to a psychological relatedness view, counterfactual and causal judgements are ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) and the Causal and Scientific Reasoning of Nonscientists

Barbara Koslowski

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Several researchers have drawn attention to the distinction between idealized models of science and descriptions of actual scientific practice (or inference to the best explanation). Several notions ... More


Intuitive Theories as Grammars for Causal Inference

Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Thomas L. Griffiths, and Sourabh Niyogi

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents a framework for understanding the structure, function, and acquisition of causal theories from a rational computational perspective. Using a “reverse engineering” approach, it ... More


Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How are causal judgements such as ‘The ice on the road caused the traffic accident’ connected with counterfactual judgements such as ‘If there had not been any ice on the road, the traffic accident ... More


Causal Reasoning Through Intervention

York Hagmayer, Steven Sloman, David Lagnado, and Michael R. Waldmann

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

In causal reasoning, the observation of an event supports different inferences than an intervention that generates the event. An intervention breaks the connection between the manipulated event and ... More


Two Proposals for Causal Grammars

Thomas L. Griffiths and Joshua B. Tenenbaum

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

A causal theory can be thought of as a grammar that generates events, and that can be used to parse events to identify underlying causal structure. This chapter considers what the components of such ... More


Causal Perception and Causal Cognition

Jim Woodward

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explores the role played by the so-called perception of causation in our more general capacity for causal thinking. I suggest that ordinary adult human causal cognition as well as a ... More


Introduction: Understanding Counterfactuals and Causation

Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack, and Sarah R. Beck

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We provide an introduction to some of the key issues raised in this volume by considering how individual chapters bear on the prospects of what may be called a ‘counterfactual process view’ of causal ... More


Domain-Specific Causal Knowledge and Children’s Reasoning about Possibility

David M. Sobel

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The goal of this chapter is to describe three lines of research centered on the hypothesis that young children possess domain-specific systems of causal knowledge that allow for various kinds of ... More


Perception, Causal Understanding, and Locality

Christoph Hoerl

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Contemporary philosophical debates about causation are dominated by two approaches, which are often referred to as difference-making and causal process approaches to causation, respectively. I ... More


Teaching the Normative Theory of Causal Reasoning

Richard Seheines, Matt Easterday, and David Danks

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Nearly all of the psychological research on human causal learning involves naïve participants; that is, individuals who have not been taught the normative theory in any way, shape, or form. Almost ... More


Detecting, Classifying, and Remediating: Children’s Explicit and Implicit Misconceptions about Experimental Design

Stephanie A. Siler and David Klahr

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Students come to science classes with preconceptions about the natural world and ways to explore that world to learn more about it. Students' prior beliefs may distort their understanding of how to ... More


The Database Calculation

John L. Pollock

in Thinking about Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195304817
eISBN:
9780199850907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304817.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The evaluative database provides efficient storage because it assumes defeasibly that values are additive, and hence the values of many compound features can be computed by summing the values of ... More


Through a Floppy Tool Darkly: Toward a Conceptual Overthrow of Animal Alchemy

Daniel J. Povinelli and Derek C. Penn

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter attempts to show that claims that chimpanzees (and other animals) reason about the world in human-like ways are unfounded. In particular, it argues that only humans rely upon ‘higher ... More


Dynamic Interpretations of Covariation Data

Woo kyoung Ahn, Jessecae K. Marsh, and Christian C. Luhmann

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Many models of causal induction are based on covariation information, which depicts whether the presence or absence of an event co-occurs with the presence or absence of another event. In all ... More


The diagnosis of causation

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a scheme for assessing causal relationships in human health. The approach is that the diagnosis of causation depends on the consideration of both causal and non-causal ... More


Descartes' two errors: Reason and reflection in the great apes

Josep Call

in Rational Animals?

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528272
eISBN:
9780191689529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528272.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines reason and reflection in the great apes. It presents a variety of behavioural evidence that is best explained either by ... More


Causal knowledge in animals

Hans Kummer

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Causal knowledge is one way to influence certain parts of one's environment through prediction and action. While all animal species exert some control by using their knowledge of interdependent ... More


On the origin of causal understanding

Susan Carey

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the origins of causal understanding. It analyses studies where causal reasoning characterizes the basic causal mechanisms in terms of which people explain the world around them. ... More


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