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Language Use

Michael Devitt

in Ignorance of Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199250967
eISBN:
9780191603945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250960.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter argues that language use does not provide persuasive evidence for the Representational Thesis (RT) view of linguistic competence, and that RT is implausible. RT is not supported by the ... More


Causal Mechanisms and Process Tracing

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines how the qualitative and quantitative research traditions empirically assess theories about mechanisms when making causal inferences. In the qualitative paradigm, researchers ... More


Causality: Production and Propagation

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The original version of this chapter was published long before the author's conversion to a conserved or invariant theory of causality as presented in “Causality and Counterfactuals” (Chapter 16); ... More


Within-Case versus Cross-Case Causal Analysis

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines how the qualitative and quantitative research traditions treat within-case analysis versus cross-case analysis for causal inference. In qualitative research, the primary focus ... More


Causal and Theoretical Explanation

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Supplements the statistical‐relevance (S‐R) model of scientific explanation with causal components. Some S‐R relationships can be explained by reference to spatiotemporally continuous causal ... More


Causal Perception and Causal Cognition

Jim Woodward

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explores the role played by the so-called perception of causation in our more general capacity for causal thinking. I suggest that ordinary adult human causal cognition as well as a ... More


An “At‐At” Theory of Causal Influence

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The propagation of causal influences through space‐time plays a fundamental role in scientific explanation. Taking as point of departure, a basic distinction between causal interactions (which are ... More


Why Ask, “Why?”?: An Inquiry Concerning Scientific Explanation

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Attempts to provide the general outlines of a causal theory of scientific explanation that can incorporate the virtues of both the standard inferential view and previous causal accounts. The new ... More


Perception, Causal Understanding, and Locality

Christoph Hoerl

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Contemporary philosophical debates about causation are dominated by two approaches, which are often referred to as difference-making and causal process approaches to causation, respectively. I ... More


Concluding Observations

Chris Argyris

in Flawed Advice and the Management Trap: How Managers Can Know When They're Getting Good Advice and When They're Not

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195132861
eISBN:
9780199848645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195132861.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

This chapter describes how readers can become more critical of the advice they read. The advice examined in the previous chapters contains four characteristics that limit both its validity and its ... More


Reliabilism

Alvin I. Goldman

in Reliabilism and Contemporary Epistemology: Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199812875
eISBN:
9780199933150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812875.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter introduces reliabilism and identifies important objections and counterexamples to reliabilism. It presents a survey of existing responses, including the response to the demon-world ... More


Veridical Hallucination and Prosthetic Vision

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume II

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195036466
eISBN:
9780199833399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195036468.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Argues that the difference between veridical hallucination and genuine seeing cannot be accounted for in terms of the absence of the normal causal process for seeing, since that process is also ... More


Measuring health inequalities

Jonathan Wistow, Tim Blackman, David Byrne, and Gerald Wistow

in Studying health inequalities: An applied approach

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781447305286
eISBN:
9781447312031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447305286.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Health inequalities can be about when people die, about differential presence of particular pathologies and about limitations placed on the life they lead when they are living it. This chapter ... More


Quasars, Causality, and Geometry: A Scientific Controversy That Did not Occur

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Shows how the failure of astrophysicists to honor the distinction between causal processes and pseudoprocesses vitiates much of the discussion of quasars since their discovery in 1963. In this case, ... More


Killing John to Save Mary: A Defense of the Moral Distinction between Killing and Letting Die

Helen Frowe

in Action, Ethics, and Responsibility

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014731
eISBN:
9780262289276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014731.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter presents an argument in opposition to that presented by Michael Tooley; Tooley’s argument states that initiating a causal process is morally equivalent to refraining from interfering in ... More


The looping effects of human kinds

Ian Hacking

in Causal Cognition: A Multidisciplinary Debate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524021
eISBN:
9780191689093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that today's understanding of causal processes in human affairs relies crucially on concepts of ‘human kinds’ which are a product of the modern social sciences, with their concern ... More


Can Structural Equations Explain How Mechanisms Explain?

Nancy Cartwright

in Making a Difference: Essays on the Philosophy of Causation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198746911
eISBN:
9780191809132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746911.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In ‘The Causal Structure of Mechanisms’, Peter Menzies develops a structural equations account of mechanism to show how mechanisms explain causal regularities. This chapter distinguishes two senses ... More


Causation in a Physical World

in Causation and its Basis in Fundamental Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199936205
eISBN:
9780199367757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199936205.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

I emphasize the important conclusions from a previous chapter and suggest ways that others can build on the main ideas. In particular, I show how the metaphysical project conducted in this book is ... More


Forecasting

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 4 downplays forecasting’s role in the design and analysis of time series experiments and emphasizes its potential abuses. While the “best” ARIMA model will outperform other forecasting models ... More


Collective Identities, Shifting Population Membership, and Niche Construction Theory: implications from Taiwanese and Chinese empirical evidence

Melissa J. Brown

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

That ethnic populations can change membership challenges a theoretical concept of population to explain such dynamics. Regime changes and mass migrations have expanded and contracted the historical ... More


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