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Integrating Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches to Children’s Causal Inference

David M. Sobel

in Neoconstructivism: The New Science of Cognitive Development

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195331059
eISBN:
9780199864072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331059.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter suggests a description of causal inference based on Bayesian inference, which illustrates how children engage in causal learning. This description is meant at the computational level of ... More


Beyond Covariation: Cues to Causal Structure

David A. Lagnado, Michael R. Waldmann, York Hagmaye, and Steven A. Sloman

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Causal induction has two components: learning about the structure of causal models and learning about causal strength and other quantitative parameters. This chapter argues for several interconnected ... More


A Philosopher Looks at Tool Use and Causal Understanding

James Woodward

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter presents a kind of typology of different sorts of abilities that might be associated with the notion of causal understanding, the acquisition of causal beliefs, causally informed action ... More


DISCOVERING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPSH

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

There are two main proposals for discovering causal relationships: a hypothetico-deductive and an inductive approach. Neither account is fully satisfactory. Various specific approaches are discussed, ... More


The Evolutionary Origins of Causal Cognition: Learning and Using Causal Structures

Brian J. Edwards, Benjamin M. Rottman, and Laurie R. Santos

in Tool Use and Causal Cognition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199571154
eISBN:
9780191731259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571154.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter explores the origins of our species' drive to explain the causal world. It begins by reviewing the types of information that humans use to learn causal structures. Specifically, it ... More


Two Proposals for Causal Grammars

Thomas L. Griffiths and Joshua B. Tenenbaum

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

A causal theory can be thought of as a grammar that generates events, and that can be used to parse events to identify underlying causal structure. This chapter considers what the components of such ... More


Introduction

Alison Gopni and Laura Schulz

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter provides a simple, clear, and (hopefully) amusing introduction to causal model and Bayes nets theories in computer science, the interventionist account of causation in philosophy, and ... More


Intuitive Theories as Grammars for Causal Inference

Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Thomas L. Griffiths, and Sourabh Niyogi

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents a framework for understanding the structure, function, and acquisition of causal theories from a rational computational perspective. Using a “reverse engineering” approach, it ... More


The Relationship between Children’s Causal and Counterfactual Judgements

Teresa McCormack, Caren Frosch, and Patrick Burns

in Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590698
eISBN:
9780191731242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590698.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, we distinguish between two ways in which counterfactual and causal judgements might be linked. According to a psychological relatedness view, counterfactual and causal judgements are ... More


Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Alison Gopnik and Laura Schulz (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This book outlines the recent revolutionary work in cognitive science formulating a “probabilistic model” theory of learning and development. It provides an accessible and clear introduction to the ... More


Interactions Between Causal and Statistical Learning

David M. Sobel and Natasha Z. Kirkham

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Infants and young children appear to have powerful statistical learning mechanisms that allow them to acquire predictive information about the environment. Children also appear to possess powerful ... More


Causal learning in rats and humans:: A minimal rational model

Michael R. Waldmann, Patricia W. Cheng, York Hagmayer, and Aaron P. Blaisdell

in The Probabilistic Mind:: Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199216093
eISBN:
9780191695971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216093.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The authors bring together human and animal studies, with a particular focus on causal learning. Whereas the traditional associative approach to learning views learning contingencies as basic, and ... More


Causal Perception and Causal Cognition

Jim Woodward

in Perception, Causation, and Objectivity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199692040
eISBN:
9780191729713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692040.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explores the role played by the so-called perception of causation in our more general capacity for causal thinking. I suggest that ordinary adult human causal cognition as well as a ... More


Causal thinking

David Lagnado

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

How do people acquire and use causal knowledge? This chapter argues that causal learning and reasoning are intertwined, and recruit similar representations and inferential procedures. In contrast to ... More


Data-Mining Probabilists or Experimental Determinists?: A Dialogue on the Principles Underlying Causal Learning in Children

Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz, and Alison Gopnik

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents a dialogue that is a distillation of a real series of conversations which took place at that most platonic of academies — the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral ... More


Causal Reasoning as Informed by the Early Development of Explanations

Henry M. Wellman and David Liu

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Research, theory, and modeling of causal reasoning typically focus on the causal predictions and interventions that result from causal understandings. This neglects the role of explanations in causal ... More


When and how do people reason about unobserved causes?

Benjamin Rottman, Woo‐kyoung Ahn, and Christian Luhmann

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Assumptions and beliefs about unobserved causes are critical for inferring causal relationships from observed correlations. For example, an unobserved factor can influence two observed variables, ... More


Teaching the Normative Theory of Causal Reasoning

Richard Seheines, Matt Easterday, and David Danks

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Nearly all of the psychological research on human causal learning involves naïve participants; that is, individuals who have not been taught the normative theory in any way, shape, or form. Almost ... More


On the Importance of Causal Taxonomy

Christopher Hitchcock

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Using a standard counterexample to probabilistic theories of causation as an illustration, this chapter argues that there are a number of questions which one might ask about a putative causal ... More


Infants’ Causal Learning: Intervention, Observation, Imitation

Andrew N. Meltzoff

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter shows that the perception of others' actions and production of self-action are mapped onto commensurate representations starting from birth. This allows infants not only to learn ... More


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