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Integrating Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches to Children’s Causal Inference

David M. Sobel

in Neoconstructivism: The New Science of Cognitive Development

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195331059
eISBN:
9780199864072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331059.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter suggests a description of causal inference based on Bayesian inference, which illustrates how children engage in causal learning. This description is meant at the computational level of ... More


Causal Inference in Sensorimotor Learning and Control

Kunlin Wei and Konrad P. Körding

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the issue of causal inference in perception and action, arguing that ambiguous sensory cues only make sense when the brain understands their causes. It takes a normative view, ... More


Social Mechanisms and Process Tracing

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines how mechanisms can be discovered in the social sciences. Process tracing is sometimes put forward as a procedure for discovering mechanisms and contrasted with inferring causal ... More


Hume's Analysis of Inductive Inference

Henry E. Allison

in Custom and Reason in Hume: A Kantian Reading of the First Book of the Treatise

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199532889
eISBN:
9780191714450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532889.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter deals with Hume's treatment of particular causal inferences, which is usually referred to as the problem of induction. It is argued that the central question that Hume poses, namely, ... More


Causality in the Sciences

Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo, and Jon Williamson (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

There is a need for integrated thinking about causality, probability, and mechanism in scientific methodology. A panoply of disciplines, ranging from epidemiology and biology through to econometrics ... More


Causal Mechanisms and Process Tracing

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines how the qualitative and quantitative research traditions empirically assess theories about mechanisms when making causal inferences. In the qualitative paradigm, researchers ... More


Causal Inference, Associationism, and the Understanding

Louis E. Loeb

in Stability and Justification in Hume's Treatise

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146585
eISBN:
9780199833405
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146581.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Locke confines ”sensitive knowledge” to objects we presently perceive or that we remember perceiving. Hume's causal theory of assurance, the claim that the relation of causation extends assurance ... More


Causal Inference (1.3.2, 4, and 6)

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Hume’s Epistemology in the Treatise: A Veritistic Interpretation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199683116
eISBN:
9780191771378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683116.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

Hume is customarily taken to argue for scepticism about causal inference in Book 1, Part 3, Section 6 of the Treatise. And he does raise something like the problem of induction in the Conclusion of ... More


The Justification that Causal Inference is Justifying (1.3.8, 12, and 15)

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Hume’s Epistemology in the Treatise: A Veritistic Interpretation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199683116
eISBN:
9780191771378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683116.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

It is an assumption of Hume’s pivotal argument for his associationist psychology in Book 1 Part 3 Section 6 of the Treatise that causal inference is justifying. Hume justifies this assumption in ... More


Biostatistics: the near future

Scott Zeger, Peter Diggle, and Kung-Yee Liang

in Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566540
eISBN:
9780191718038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566540.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter reviews the biomedical and public health developments that will influence biostatistical research and practice in the near future, such as advances in molecular biology, and measuring ... More


Inferring causation in epidemiology: Mechanisms, black boxes, and contrasts

Alex Broadbent

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter explores the idea that causal inference is warranted if and only if the mechanism underlying the inferred causal association is identified. This mechanistic stance is discernible in the ... More


Humans' Multisensory Perception, from Integration to Segregation, Follows Bayesian Inference

Ladan Shams and Ulrik Beierholm

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter first discusses experimental findings showing that multisensory perception encompasses a spectrum of phenomena ranging from full integration (or fusion), to partial integration, to ... More


Within-Case versus Cross-Case Causal Analysis

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines how the qualitative and quantitative research traditions treat within-case analysis versus cross-case analysis for causal inference. In qualitative research, the primary focus ... More


Counterfactuals

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter examines the use of counterfactual analysis in making causal inferences in the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. To assess a counterfactual claim about a particular case, ... More


Integrating Hume's Accounts of Belief and Justification

Louis E. Loeb

in Stability and Justification in Hume's Treatise

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146585
eISBN:
9780199833405
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146581.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In Treatise I.iii.5–10, Hume's claim that association by the relation of cause and effect produces belief is often intertwined – though without his remarking on this fact – with the claim that belief ... More


When and how do people reason about unobserved causes?

Benjamin Rottman, Woo‐kyoung Ahn, and Christian Luhmann

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Assumptions and beliefs about unobserved causes are critical for inferring causal relationships from observed correlations. For example, an unobserved factor can influence two observed variables, ... More


Interactions Between Causal and Statistical Learning

David M. Sobel and Natasha Z. Kirkham

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Infants and young children appear to have powerful statistical learning mechanisms that allow them to acquire predictive information about the environment. Children also appear to possess powerful ... More


Data-Mining Probabilists or Experimental Determinists?: A Dialogue on the Principles Underlying Causal Learning in Children

Thomas Richardson, Laura Schulz, and Alison Gopnik

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents a dialogue that is a distillation of a real series of conversations which took place at that most platonic of academies — the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral ... More


Criticizing Causal Inferences and a Criterion of Justifying Causal Inference (1.3.13)

Frederick F. Schmitt

in Hume’s Epistemology in the Treatise: A Veritistic Interpretation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199683116
eISBN:
9780191771378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683116.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

In the course of his associationist explanation of defective causal inferences, Hume criticizes rash causal inferences as failing to conform to the Uniformity Principle, according to which nature is ... More


The error term and its interpretation in structural models in econometrics

Damien Fennell

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0017
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter explores what the error term represents in structural models in econometrics and the assumptions about the error terms that are used for successful statistical and causal inference. The ... More


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