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How valves work

David O. Clayden

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0018
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents background information on valves. A valve consists of an evacuated glass envelope containing a number of electrodes. These are connected to the outside by wires passing though ... More


Circuit design of the Pilot ACE and the Big ACE

David O. Clayden

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter describes circuit design of the Pilot ACE and Big ACE. Topics covered include the advantages of the long tailed pair in digital circuits, the half-adder and adder circuits, signal ... More


Concepts of Evidence, or How the Electron Got Its Charge

Peter Achinstein

in The Book of Evidence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Using as an example the results of Hertz's experiments on cathode rays in 1883, in which no electrical effects of these rays were observed, four concepts of evidence are introduced: ES (epistemic ... More


The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Joseph Erlanger becomes the first head of the Physiology Department at Washington University, St Louis, and appoints Herbert Gasser to his staff. Together they attempt to record nerve impulses, after ... More


Semiconductors in the infrared

John Orton

in The Story of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199559107
eISBN:
9780191712975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559107.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

William Herschel discovered infra-red radiation in 1800 and this chapter tells the story of its application to the practical problem of ‘night vision’. Two approaches have been adopted: thermal ... More


Systems Containing only a Single Nucleus

Finn Aaserud and John L. Heilbron

in Love, Literature, and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr’s 1913 Trilogy Revisited

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680283
eISBN:
9780191760228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680283.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter presents Part II of a paper by Niels Bohr on systems containing a single nucleus. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 deals with the configuration and stability of the systems. ... More


Evidence and Justification

Kent Staley

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Among the evidence concepts that Peter Achinstein has defended is one (ES-evidence) that he claims is based on the idea of providing an epistemic justification for belief. To the contrary, This ... More


Evidence and Objectivity in Achinstein's Philosophy of Science

Gerald Doppelt

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter advances a critical evaluation of Achinstein's account of scientific evidence in The Book of Evidence. The chapter argues that weaknesses in his account motivate an alternative position ... More


Strange Rays

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the initiatives of various physicists and chemists to explore the strange new rays called X-rays that were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. The decade of the 1890s was a ... More


Transforming the Recovery and Recycling of Nonrenewable Resources

Markus A. Reuter and Antoinette van Schaik

in Linkages of Sustainability

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013581
eISBN:
9780262258845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013581.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the optimization of the recycling and recovery rate of nonrenewable resources. It illustrates the interaction of fundamental engineering and principles of recycling and metal ... More


Video as the Moving Image

Michael Z. Newman

in Video Revolutions: On the History of a Medium

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169516
eISBN:
9780231537759
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169516.003.0004
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter describes the third phase of video's evolution. The third phase involves the advent of the digital age, wherein the materiality and specificity of film and video as media significantly ... More


Electric Occurrence: Electrolysis

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Electrolysis makes use of electric currents, a stream of electrons, to bring about chemical change. It puts electricity to work by using it to break or form bonds by forcing electrons on to ... More


Kristian Birkeland: From Aurora to the Universe

Helge Kragh

in Masters of the Universe: Conversations with Cosmologists of the Past

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198722892
eISBN:
9780191789564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722892.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The interview of 1913 with Norwegian physicist Kristian Birkeland took place in Stockholm. It focused on how he extended his work on cathode rays and the nature of the aurora borealis into a cosmic ... More


Belji of Dhulikhel

Cheryl Colopy

in Dirty, Sacred Rivers: Confronting South Asia’s Water Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199845019
eISBN:
9780197563212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199845019.003.0016
Subject:
Environmental Science, Management of Land and Natural Resources

I first heard of Bel Prasad Shrestha five years before I met him. An article in the Nepali Times lauded his efforts to establish a water system in the town of Dhulikhel while he was its mayor. I ... More


The Sorrows of Bihar

Cheryl Colopy

in Dirty, Sacred Rivers: Confronting South Asia’s Water Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199845019
eISBN:
9780197563212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199845019.003.0017
Subject:
Environmental Science, Management of Land and Natural Resources

Before I went to Bihar I knew little about embankments. I had seen levees in California, in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and in the Central Valley. There, if you stand on an embankment on one ... More


The Atom: discovery

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Many independent discoveries led to the discovery of the atom. Einstein’s explanation of Brownian motion provided proof that atoms exist. J.J. Thomson identified the cathode rays produced in Crookes‘ ... More


Electrochemistry

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter explores electrochemistry, from the fundamental observations associated with the Daniel Cell to redox reactions and the Nernst equation. As throughout the book, all the discussions are ... More


The Electrochemistry of Oxides

Bruce C. Bunker and William H. Casey

in The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199384259
eISBN:
9780197562987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199384259.003.0018
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

Many of the critical reactions considered in this book involve the addition or subtraction of protons from oxides. In this chapter, we consider another species that can change oxide charge ... More


The Electron and Chemical Periodicity

Eric Scerri

in The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190914363
eISBN:
9780197559925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190914363.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

J.J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron is one of the most celebrated events in the history of physics. What is not so well known is that Thomson had a deep interest in chemistry, which, among ... More


Lenses that focus Electrons

Peter B. Moore

in Visualizing the Invisible: Imaging Techniques for the Structural Biologist

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199767090
eISBN:
9780190267841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199767090.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter begins by introducing Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll's electron microscope, an invention inspired by modern cathode ray tube (CRT). Microscopy instruments such as transmission electron ... More


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