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Case-control and cohort studies in the age of genome-wide associations

Teri Manolio

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Environmental modifiers of the effects of genetic variants, or gene-environment interactions, have received increased attention in recent years due to the recognition that genetic variants alone are ... More


Logic of the Case-Control Design

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter explains the logic of the case-control strategy. It shows how to conceptualize a case-control study as a condensed version of a cohort study. This relationship between the two designs is ... More


Comparability and the Case-Control Study

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.18
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The validity of a case-control study depends upon sampling controls from the noncases in an unbiased way, that is, independent of exposure status. Although this safeguard will prevent introducing ... More


STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA)—an extension of the STROBE statement

Julian Little, Julian P. T. Higgins, John P. A. Ioannidis, David Moher, France Gagnon, Erik von Elm, Muin J. Khoury, Barbara Cohen, George Davey Smith, Jeremy Grimshaw, Paul Scheet, Marta Gwinn, Robin E. Williamson, Guang Yong Zou, Kimberley Hutchings, Candice Y. Johnson, Valerie Tait, Miriam Wiens, Jean Golding, Cornelia M. van Duijn, John McLaughlin, Andrew Paterson, George Wells, Isabel Fortier, Matthew Freedman, Maja Zecevic, Richard A. King, Claire Infante-Rivard, Alexandre Stewart, and Nick Birkett

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter proposes and justifies a set of guiding principles for reporting results of genetic association studies. The epidemiology community has recently developed the STrengthening the Reporting ... More


Case-Control Studies

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses case-control studies. Topics covered include retrospective ascertainment of exposure status in cases and controls, case definition, control definition, control of confounding ... More


15. Case-control studies

Hazel Inskip and David Coggon

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Case-control (or case-referent) studies compare patients with a disease or health outcome of interest (a case) with controls who do not have the disease or outcome. Their relevant past exposures are ... More


Applications of the Case-Control Study

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.16
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Implementing a case-control study presents three central challenges. The first is to select cases and controls from the same source population. The investigator attempts to visualize the population ... More


Study Design, Measures of Effect, and Sources of Bias

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.02
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the principles of research study design. It provides an in-depth description of commonly used study designs to address research objectives. It presents information about study ... More


Overview of Study Designs

Harvey Checkoway, Neil Pearce, and David Kriebel

in Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195092424
eISBN:
9780199864553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092424.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The choice of epidemiologic study design is largely dictated by the health outcomes of primary interest, feasibility, and availability of valid exposure data. This chapter provides brief descriptions ... More


Study design

Jørn Olsen and Olga Basso

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiology is defined by its objective: to study determinants of diseases and ill health in human populations. To do so, epidemiologists use experimental and non-experimental methods. This chapter ... More


The Arsenal of Observational Methods in Epidemiology: Classical Designs, the Fourfold Table, Cohort and Case-Control Studies

Mervyn Susser and Zena Stein

in Eras in Epidemiology: The Evolution of Ideas

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195300666
eISBN:
9780199863754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300666.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on observational methods in epidemiology. It presents a fourfold table that serves in field studies to test the precision of measures, either of exposure or of outcome, and in ... More


Study Designs

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes different risk factor study designs. Study designs can be viewed as techniques for organizing observations in ways that can reveal the causes of disease. The risk factor study ... More


Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

David A. Savitz

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book offers a strategy for assessing epidemiologic research findings. Specific tools for assessing the presence and impact of selection bias in both cohort and case-control studies, bias from ... More


Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Mark Elwood

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book presents a logical system of critical appraisal, and facilitates studies to be evaluated and carried out effectively. This system emphasizes the central importance of cause and effect ... More


Case-Control Studies

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

In contrast to an observational cohort study in which participants are identified, exposures are measured, and then outcomes status is measured after follow-up, a case-control study is an ... More


Choosing Controls

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.17
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter sharpens the focus to a central pitfall of case-control studies in psychiatric research: selecting valid controls. It revisits the logic of control selection and the guideline of ... More


Choosing Controls in Biologic Psychiatry

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.21
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

One of the most difficult and intellectually intriguing tasks of a biologic case-control study is the selection of the control group. An inappropriate control group can mask the presence of a true ... More


Designing Studies in the Field

Richard C. Dicker

in Field Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195313802
eISBN:
9780199863952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313802.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The two most common types of observational studies conducted by field epidemiologists are cohort studies and case control studies. Conceptually, a cohort study, like an experimental study, begins ... More


Causes and Effects

J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson

in Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195145250
eISBN:
9780199864775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exercises in this section cover the kinds of epidemiological study used to investigate causal processes, criteria for the appraisal of causal associations, and ways of measuring the impact of ... More


Biologic Studies in Psychiatry

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.19
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Although epidemiologic and biologic researchers share the common goal of finding causes of psychiatric disorders, they approach the task from different vantage points. As a result, they sometimes ... More


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