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Chemical Hazards

René Mendes

in Global Occupational Health

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195380002
eISBN:
9780199893881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380002.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes common classes of chemical hazards and some specific chemicals that are important in occupational health: 1) the gases that make up the chemical asphyxiants have in common the ... More


Envisioning the Lethal Chamber

Scott Christianson

in The Last Gasp: The Rise and Fall of the American Gas Chamber

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255623
eISBN:
9780520945616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255623.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The history of the gas chamber is a story of the twentieth century. But an earlier event that would subsequently figure into its evolution occurred one day in 1846, when a French physiologist, Claude ... More


Neurological Disorders

Margit L. Bleecker

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0026
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes neurologic disorders related primarily to occupational exposures along with presenting signs and symptoms. Acute or subacute occupational exposure to high levels of neurotoxic ... More


Pediatric Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Ramona O. Hopkins

in Cognitive and Behavioral Abnormalities of Pediatric Diseases

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195342680
eISBN:
9780197562598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195342680.003.0073
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been described ever since humans developed products of combustion (e.g. fire, burning charcoal). The Romans realized that ... More


Cardiovascular Disorders

Kenneth D. Rosenman

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0029
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes cardiovascular disorders related to occupational and environmental exposures. Sections of the chapter address cardiovascular disease due to carbon monoxide, nitrates, ... More


Chemical Hazards

Michael Gochfeld and Robert Laumbach

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Building on the principles of toxicology, this chapter describes chemicals by structure, source, use, mechanism of action, environmental properties, and target organ. Major advances in toxic effects ... More


Air Pollution

Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Isabelle Romieu, and Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the adverse effects of both outdoor air pollution and indoor air pollution. Various ambient air pollutants are described as well as their adverse health effects, including ... More


Air pollution

in Environmental Pollution Studies

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239239
eISBN:
9781846313035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239239.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

The emission of gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HCs) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the air can cause undesirable health effects. These gases interact to ... More


The Effects of Increased Viscosity on the Function of Integral Membrane Proteins

Suzanne F. Scarlata

in High Pressure Effects in Molecular Biophysics and Enzymology

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097221
eISBN:
9780197560839
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097221.003.0024
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

For many years the idea that the activity of integral membrane proteins is regulated by the fluidity of the lipid matrix was popular and appeared to be quite rational. ... More


Back to Basics: Reduction

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

In its original meaning, reduction was what was done to a metal ore to obtain the metal itself: the stony ore hacked from the land was reduced to the ... More


Pressure Effects on the Ligand-Binding Kinetics for Hemoproteins and Their Site-Directed Mutants

Isao Morishima

in High Pressure Effects in Molecular Biophysics and Enzymology

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097221
eISBN:
9780197560839
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097221.003.0016
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

The effects of high pressure up to 1500 bar on the recombination kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide (CO) binding to human hemoglobin (intact and isolated chain ... More


Osmotic and Hydrostatic Pressure as Tools to Study Molecular Recognition

Stephen G. Sligar and Clifford R. Robinson

in High Pressure Effects in Molecular Biophysics and Enzymology

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097221
eISBN:
9780197560839
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097221.003.0026
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

The question of molecular recognition is a central paradigm of molecular biology, playing central roles in most, if not all, cellular processes. Failed recognition ... More


Poisoning

Pawan Gupta

in Oxford Assess and Progress: Emergency Medicine

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199599530
eISBN:
9780191918049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199599530.003.0013
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

EDs in the UK see a significant number of patients (347 per 100 000/year and ever-increasing) with acute overdose of drugs. Most of them are ingested orally, but other modes of intake can be used, ... More


Synaptic Plasticity

Christof Koch

in Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195104912
eISBN:
9780197562338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195104912.003.0019
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Animals live in an ever-changing environment to which they must continuously adapt. Adaptation in the nervous system occurs at every level, from ion channels and ... More


Unconventional Computing

Christof Koch

in Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195104912
eISBN:
9780197562338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195104912.003.0026
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

As discussed in the introduction to this book, any (bio)physical mechanism that transforms some physical variable, such as the electrical potential across the ... More


Emergencies

Tom Coryndon and Chris Parnell

in Oxford Assess and Progress: Clinical Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198812968
eISBN:
9780191917226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812968.003.0022
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

All doctors have to deal with emergencies— this can be a daunting pro­spect, particularly when first on the scene. The fear may be that one wrong decision could be ... More


I Told You So, Said Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

Lars Öhrström

in The Last Alchemist in Paris: And other curious tales from chemistry

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199661091
eISBN:
9780191916885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199661091.003.0021
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

Rural Massachusetts is delightful at the end of summer. The classic New England architecture blends with the lawns, gardens, and green forests into a picture of ... More


Central Nervous and Head and Neck

Richard Lindsay, Scott Gillespie, Rory Kelly, Raghuram Sathyanarayana, and Paul Burns

in SBAs for the Final FRCR 2A

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199607761
eISBN:
9780191918117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199607761.003.0010
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine


Vibrational Energy Relaxation

Abraham Nitzan

in Chemical Dynamics in Condensed Phases: Relaxation, Transfer and Reactions in Condensed Molecular Systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198529798
eISBN:
9780191916649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198529798.003.0020
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

An impurity molecule located as a solute in a condensed solvent, a solid matrix or a liquid, when put in an excited vibrational state will loose its excess ... More


Optical Propagation in Gases and the Atmosphere of the Earth

Michael E. Thomas

in Optical Propagation in Linear Media: Atmospheric Gases and Particles, Solid State Components, and Water

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195091618
eISBN:
9780197560679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195091618.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Propagation within the atmosphere is an important consideration concerning the performance of many electro-optical systems. An electro-optical system can ... More


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