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Diet and Nutrition

Robin Chatterjee (ed.)

in SBAs in Sport, Exercise, and Musculoskeletal Medicine

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780198859444
eISBN:
9780191892226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198859444.003.0036
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Clinical Medicine

This chapter is comprised of 10 clinically based and also knowledge based questions and answers. The corresponding answers to the questions can be found at the end of the chapter, each of which has a ... More


Carbohydrates: Neutral and Minor Sugars

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter covers carbohydrates, the most abundant class of biopolymers on Earth and significant components of water column particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter in aquatic ... More


Lifestyle, diet, and disease: comparative perspectives on the determinants of chronic health risks

William R. Leonard

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

We evolved under high levels of physical activity and energy expenditure, seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and frequent periods of marginal or negative energy balance. Today, we continue ... More


The weak hydrogen bond in biological structures

GAUTAM R. DESIRAJU and THOMAS STEINER

in The Weak Hydrogen Bond: In Structural Chemistry and Biology

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509707
eISBN:
9780191708206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509707.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The structure and function of biological molecules is to a large degree determined by hydrogen bonding. This is the case for proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, membranes and also the aqueous ... More


Confusion at the Table: Can We Trust That Our Food Is Healthy?

Walter C. Willett

in The Trust Crisis in Healthcare: Causes, Consequences, and Cures

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195176360
eISBN:
9780199865598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176360.003.12
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Eating is essentially an act of trust because we trust that the food that we eat, most of which we are not responsible for farming or processing, is safe. However, instances of food contamination and ... More


Prevention of coronary heart disease: findings from the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study

F. B. Hu and W. C. Willett

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0039
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the contributions of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (HPFS) to the nutritional epidemiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). Compelling ... More


The Light on the Leaves

David R. Dalton

in The Chemistry of Wine: From Blossom to Beverage and Beyond

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190687199
eISBN:
9780197559802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190687199.003.0017
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

As noted earlier in the general description of the plant cell, there is a site at which photosynthesis, the process which allows plants to capture sunlight and convert it into energy, occurs. It is ... More


The Chemistry of Life

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter introduces some basic concepts from chemistry and biology that are often at the heart of various approaches to artificial chemistries. It starts with the problem of how to define life, ... More


Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates and Amino Acids

Gary W. Morrow

in Bioorganic Synthesis: An Introduction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199860531
eISBN:
9780197563229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199860531.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

We have already seen that some of the basic building blocks used in the biosynthesis of natural products are amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and others. These and other crucial ... More


The Macronutrient Diet Wars: From the Low-Fat Campaign to Low-Calorie, Low-Carb, and Low-GI Diets

Gyorgy Scrinis

in Nutritionism: The Science and Politics of Dietary Advice

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156578
eISBN:
9780231527149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156578.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter describes how the decline of the low-fat campaign since the late 1990s resulted in alternative weight-loss dietary approaches. By the late 1990s, some nutrition experts believed that the ... More


Diabetes and Obesity: Can Videogames Help?

Lynne Harris, Jon DeShazo, and Wanda Pratt

in Health Informatics: A Patient-Centered Approach to Diabetes

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014328
eISBN:
9780262289498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014328.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter describes the design of a set of mobile phone and desktop computer videogames intended to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. It explains that these videogames are a ... More


A Revolution in Peptide Synthesis

Brent R. Stockwell

in The Quest for the Cure: The Science and Stories Behind the Next Generation of Medicines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152136
eISBN:
9780231525527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152136.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter reflects on the revolution in peptide synthesis that began in 1949, when Robert Bruce Merrifield developed a method called solid-phase peptide synthesis. Working in the laboratory of ... More


Preparation of Low-Carbon Sediments from the Mississippi River and Certain Tributaries for Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR Analysis

Jerry A. Leenheer and Gary E. Maciel

in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environment Chemistry

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097511
eISBN:
9780197560853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097511.003.0024
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

The nature of organic carbon in aquatic sediments and soils with low carbon contents and significant contents of paramagnetic elements such as iron and manganese is difficult to assess by ... More


Solar Flux and Molecular Absorption

Yuk L. Yung and William B. DeMore

in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195105018
eISBN:
9780197560990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195105018.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

In this book we are concerned primarily with disequilibrium chemistry, of which the sun is the principal driving force. The sun is not, however, the only source of disequilibrium chemistry in the ... More


Bioenergetics and Primitive Metabolic Pathways

David W. Deamer

in Assembling Life: How Can Life Begin on Earth and Other Habitable Planets?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190646387
eISBN:
9780197559741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190646387.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

It seems inescapable that at some point primitive cells incorporated chemical reactions related to what we now call metabolism. In all life today, metabolic reactions are driven by sources of ... More


Candy Floss, Cellulose, Sugars and Foods

David Segal

in Materials for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198804079
eISBN:
9780191842320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804079.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Chapter 2 describes conversion of cellulose to useful products in the 19th century (rayon, celluloid, guncotton) and the role of glucose in its chemical structure. The preparation of candy floss ... More


Analyzing Groups of Genes

Soumya Raychaudhuri

in Computational Text Analysis: for functional genomics and bioinformatics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198567400
eISBN:
9780191916700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198567400.003.0013
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

The analysis of large-scale genomic data (such as sequences or expression patterns) frequently involves grouping genes based on common experimental features. The goal of manual or automated ... More


Food for Thought

Karel Schrijiver and Iris Schrijiver

in Living with the Stars: How the Human Body is Connected to the Life Cycles of the Earth, the Planets, and the Stars

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198727439
eISBN:
9780191793615
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727439.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter relates how the elements hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen—dominating in all life on the Earth—make up more than 96% of our body weight. Carbon is the key component of organic ... More


Carbon Dioxide as a Reactant and Solvent in Catalysis

Takao Ikariya and Ryoji Noyori

in Green Chemistry Using Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154832
eISBN:
9780197561935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154832.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

An increased awareness of global atmospheric carbon levels and heightened efforts to recover industrial emissions prior to their release into the environment has led to the availability of an ... More


The Relevance of Biogeochemistry to Amazon Development and Conservation

Michael E. McClain

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

To read the press of recent years, one might imagine that the fate of the world rests in the hands of those who would develop the Amazon basin. Waves of incoming colonists are blamed for the bulk ... More


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