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Failures

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

A fair estimation of the ways in which mathematics helps with science should also consider the ways in which mathematics hurts science. This chapter argues that each of the positive contributions ... More


Of Ashes and Alkalis

Peter Wothers

in Antimony, Gold, and Jupiter's Wolf: How the elements were named

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199652723
eISBN:
9780191918230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652723.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

The name azote, proposed by Lavoisier and his colleagues, did not gain wide acceptance; nitrogen, meaning ‘nitre-former’, is the name now familiar to us. Modern ... More


The final steps to energy and its conservation

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

While many thought that the science of heat was complete, others did not and so continued to take the final steps to explain heat as a form of a conserved quantity soon to be called energy.


‘H Two O’ to ‘O Two H’

Peter Wothers

in Antimony, Gold, and Jupiter's Wolf: How the elements were named

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199652723
eISBN:
9780191918230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652723.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

It was not until the late eighteenth century—over a hundred years after the discovery of phosphorus—that it was appreciated that both phosphorus and sulfur were ... More


Scientific Realism and Chemistry

Hasok Chang

in Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190494599
eISBN:
9780197559666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190494599.003.0018
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

SCIENTIFIC REALISM Is a philosophical issue with relevance to all sciences, but there are some particularly interesting and distinctive ways in which it ... More


Brains or Brawn: You Can’t Have Both

Suzana Herculano-Houzel

in The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034258
eISBN:
9780262333214
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034258.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Human brains work at 24 watts of power, cost 516 kilocalories per day; caloric intake is limiting for non-human primates; larger primates get more calories per hour, but not fast enough; the upper ... More


Spin caloritronics

G. E. W. Bauer

in Spin Current

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199600380
eISBN:
9780191775062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600380.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on spin caloritronics, the field combining thermoelectrics with spintronics and nanomagnetism. The term ‘caloritronics’ has recently been introduced to describe the endeavour to ... More


“Nature Is the Great Experimenter”

Thomas A. Apel

in Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds: Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780804797405
eISBN:
9780804799638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804797405.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

Chapter Three examines the investigators’ uses of the new chemistry of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. Lavoisier’s “chemical revolution” produced a Kuhnian paradigm shift that fundamentally altered ... More


Health and Nutrition: The Data Analysis

in Measuring Up: A History of Living Standards in Mexico, 1850-1950

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804773164
eISBN:
9780804782852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804773164.003.0008
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This chapter examines the synergies between health and nutrition and their impact on living standards in Mexico by way of the analysis of the quantitative evidence available. It discusses the ... More


Nonextensive Effects in Hamiltonian Systems

Andrea Rapisarda and Vito Latora

in Nonextensive Entropy: Interdisciplinary Applications

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159769
eISBN:
9780197562024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159769.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

The Boltzmann-Gibbs formulation of equilibrium statistical mechanics depends crucially on the nature of the Hamiltonian of the JV-body system under study, but this fact is clearly stated only in ... More


Ageing, nutrition, disease, and therapy: a role for antioxidants?

Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge

in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717478
eISBN:
9780191802133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter reviews various theories of ageing, with a particular focus on the free-radical theory of ageing (cumulative oxidative damage by reactive species [RS] causes ageing) and the evidence ... More


Science Marries into the Family

John H. Lienhard

in The Engines of Our Ingenuity: An Engineer Looks at Technology and Culture

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195135831
eISBN:
9780197565483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195135831.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Social Impact of Environmental Issues

The old Latin word scientia was not much used to designate ordered knowledge until recent times. Galileo would not have called himself a scientist, nor would Newton or Leibniz. Even two hundred ... More


A Tale of Two Countries: the Rise of the Steam Engine and the Caloric Theory of Heat

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The main cultural by-product of the French Revolution was the unprecedented rise in mathematics and science. Watt’s steam engine and the entrepreneurial skills of Boulton mark the start of the ... More


Heat: the missing piece to the puzzle

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Historians explore the various theories of heat and the invention of the thermometer that eventually served to quantify the energy related to heat.


Lavoisier and the birth of modern chemistry

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Building on the discoveries of such scientists as Priestley and Cavendish, Lavoisier invalidated the concept of phlogiston, discovered respiration to be a form of combustion, and ultimately laid the ... More


Caloric theory: beginning of its end

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The early 1800s provided new evidence challenging the caloric theory when Rumford bored a cannon and boiled water, Davy melted ice by using friction, and Young made the connection between light and ... More


The 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The concept of energy and its conservation arrived around 1850 and became the basis for the 1st Law of Thermodynamics and also the early development of the kinetic theory of gases, which explained ... More


Sadi Carnot

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0030
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Carnot sought to better understand the performance of the Cornish engine for the benefit of France. His ground-breaking analysis involved new theories on thermal efficiency, maximum work, and ... More


Nutrition, Genetics, and Human Performance During Military Training

Erin Gaffney-Stomberg and James P. McClung

in Human Performance Optimization: The Science and Ethics of Enhancing Human Capabilities

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190455132
eISBN:
9780190455156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190455132.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Military personnel train and conduct operations in environments that result in exposure to multiple stressors such as caloric deprivation, physical and psychological strain, and increased energy ... More


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