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Material Structure and Calculating Machines

Kurt Smith

in Matter Matters: Metaphysics and Methodology in the Early Modern Period

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199583652
eISBN:
9780191723155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583652.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter it is shown how Leibniz and others in the period understood bodies to be mathematically informed (structured). This led to their designing and constructing calculating machines—the ... More


Reinventing the Wheel: Emulation in the European Enlightenment

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The history of calculating machines in the eighteenth century is a story of copying—and improving—mechanisms and processes, often known with only the sketchiest of detail. These machines emerged ... More


Carrying Tens: Pascal, Morland, and the Challenge of Machine Calculation

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Focusing upon the calculating machines of Blaise Pascal and Sir Samuel Morland from the seventeenth century, this chapter studies the skills necessary in calculation and those necessary for designing ... More


Calculating Machines, Creativity, and Humility from Leibniz to Turing

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Philosophers in the eighteenth century did not see machines capable of arithmetic as threatening the distinctiveness of human reasoning. Despite famous claims by Hobbes and Leibniz, calculation was ... More


Artisans and Their Philosophers: Leibniz and Hooke Coordinate Minds, Metal, and Wood

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter investigates Leibniz’s relationship to skilled labor in the conception and creation of his calculating machines. It shows Robert Hooke and Leibniz working to organize and coordinate the ... More


Improvement for Profit: Calculating Machines and the Prehistory of Intellectual Property

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Contributing to the history of intellectual property, this chapter studies the calculating machines of Pascal, Morland and Leibniz within early modern systems for protecting and encouraging ... More


Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Matthew L. Jones

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book studies mechanical calculating machines in the period before they became everyday commodities, from the attempts of Pascal in the 1640s through Babbage’s efforts in the 1820s-1840s. Through ... More


Reflection: Reason, Calculating Machines, and Efficient Causation

Matthew L. Jonesp

in Efficient Causation: A History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199782185
eISBN:
9780199395583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782185.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Calculating machines around 1700 served as something “good to think with” in the major early modern debate about what sorts of causes were philosophically licit in explaining the creation and ... More


Teething Problems: Charles Stanhope and the Coordination of Technical Knowledge from Geneva to Kent

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Using a rich store of documents, this chapter tracks the creation of a series of calculating machines by the English nobleman Charles Stanhope. Stanhope’s materialized design practice emerged from ... More


Introduction

Matthew L. Jones

in Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking About Thinking from Pascal to Babbage

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411460
eISBN:
9780226411637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226411637.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Understanding early modern calculating machines, the introduction explains, demands combining histories of labor, of mechanical contrivances, of intellectual history, and of philosophical reflection ... More


Can Automatic Calculating Machines Be Said To Think? (1952)

Alan Turing and Richard Braithwaite

in The Essential Turing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198250791
eISBN:
9780191916526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198250791.003.0020
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

This discussion between Turing, Newman, R. B. Braithwaite, and G. Jefferson was recorded by the BBC on 10 January 1952 and broadcast on BBC Radio on the 14th, and again on the 23rd, of that month. ... More


Can Digital Computers Think? (1951)

Alan Turing

in The Essential Turing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198250791
eISBN:
9780191916526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198250791.003.0019
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

The lecture ‘Can Digital Computers Think?’ was broadcast on BBC Radio on 15 May 1951, and was repeated on 3 July of that year. (Sara Turing relates that Turing did not listen to the Wrst broadcast ... More


Toward a Holy Grail

Subrata Dasgupta

in It Began with Babbage: The Genesis of Computer Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199309412
eISBN:
9780197562857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199309412.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

Sometime between 1936 and 1946, there was a change in etymology, at least in the English language. The word computer came to mean the machine not the man. Old habits, ... More


Solvable and Unsolvable Problems (1954)

Alan Turing

in The Essential Turing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198250791
eISBN:
9780191916526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198250791.003.0024
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

In Chapter 1 Turing proves the existence of mathematical problems that cannot be solved by the universal Turing machine. There he also advances the thesis, now called the Church–Turing thesis,that ... More


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