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BCI Hardware and Software

J. Adam Wilson, Christoph Guger, and Gerwin Schalk

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the key components of the hardware and software currently used in brain-computer interface (BCI) research and design, and describes evaluation procedures that can help ensure ... More


BCIs That Use P300 Event-Related Potentials

Eric W. Sellers, Yael Arbel, and Emanuel Donchin

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in electroencephalography are manifestations at the scalp of neural activity that is triggered by, and is involved in, the processing of specific events. This ... More


BCIs That Use Sensorimotor Rhythms

Gert Pfurtscheller and Dennis J. McFarland

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Movement and motor imagery are accompanied by changes in rhythmic activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex. Decreases and increases in these sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) are referred as ... More


Clinical Evaluation of BCIs

Theresa M. Vaughan, Eric W. Sellers, and Jonathan R. Wolpaw

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter addresses the following questions: Can the brain-computer interface (BCI) design be implemented in a form suitable for long-term independent use? Who are the people who need the BCI ... More


BCI Applications

Jane E. Huggins and Debra Zeitlin

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Many people with disabilities already use assistive technology (AT) to provide accessible interfaces with commercial devices that were not designed with a disabled user in mind. This chapter ... More


BCIs That Use Electrocorticographic Activity

Gerwin Schalk

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the potential of electrocorticography (ECoG) as a clinically useful brain-computer interface signal modality. ECoG has greater amplitude, higher topographical resolution, and a ... More


Neural Engineering

Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi, Lee E. Miller, W. Zev Rymer, and Richard Weir

in Neuroergonomics: The brain at work

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195177619
eISBN:
9780199864683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177619.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a brief review of the earlier ideas and advances in the interaction between neural and artificial systems. It then reviews recent advances in the use of signals extracted by ... More


BCIs That Use Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials or Slow Cortical Potentials

Brendan Z. Allison, Josef Faller, and Christa Neuper

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter describes steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), slow cortical potentials (SCPs), and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on these signals. SSVEPs are produced by repetitive ... More


Acquiring Brain Signals from within the Brain

Kevin J. Otto, Kip A. Ludwig, and Daryl R. Kipke

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter describes the current state of intracortical neural interface technologies for brain-computer interface applications. The first section provides an overview of the various intracortical ... More


BCI Operating Protocols

Steven G. Mason, Brendan Z. Allison, and Jonathan R. Wolpaw

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

A brain-computer interface (BCI) operating protocol has four key elements, each of which can be stated as a question: Who initiates BCI operation: the BCI or the user? Who parameterizes the feature ... More


BCI Signal Processing: Feature Translation

Dennis J. McFarland and Dean J. Krusienski

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the kinds of translation algorithms most frequently used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). It is organized into four sections. The first section considers the factors ... More


BCIs That Use Brain Metabolic Signals

Ranganatha Sitaram, Sangkyun Lee, and Niels Birbaumer

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) currently under development use the brain's electrical signals. Nevertheless, nonelectrical metabolic signals also have potential for use in BCI development. Two ... More


BCIs That Use Signals Recorded in Motor Cortex

John P. Donoghue

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

One useful way of categorizing a brain-computer interface (BCI) is by the location of its sensor. The type and site of the sensor are directly tied to the kinds of signals that can be obtained and ... More


BCI Signal Processing: Feature Extraction

Dean J. Krusienski, Dennis J. McFarland, and José C. Principe

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The purpose of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to detect and quantify characteristics of brain signals that indicate what the user wants the BCI to do, to translate these measurements in real ... More


BCI Applications for the General Population

Benjamin Blankertz, Michael Tangermann, and Klaus-Robert Müller

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0023
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter addresses brain-computer interface (BCI) applications for the general population (i.e., applications that are not specifically intended for people who are disabled). These nonmedical ... More


BCI Therapeutic Applications for Improving Brain Function

Janis J. Daly and Ranganatha Sitaram

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter describes ways in which brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) might be used as therapeutic tools to restore more normal motor control and more normal cognitive and emotional function to ... More


Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Jonathan Wolpaw and Elizabeth Winter Wolpaw (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

In the last fifteen years, a recognizable surge in the field of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research and development has emerged. This emergence has sprung from a variety of factors. For one, ... More


Acquiring Brain Signals from Outside the Brain

Ramesh Srinivasan

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) determine their user's wishes by recording electromagnetic signals noninvasively from sensors on or above the scalp. The two principal noninvasive extracranial ... More


BCI Users and Their Needs

Leigh R. Hochberg and Kim D. Anderson

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Most of this book is focused on the “what” and “how” of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). For the purposes of discussion, it is assumed that the challenges of BCI development will be overcome and ... More


Ethical Issues in BCI Research

Mary-Jane Schneider, Joseph J. Fins, and Jonathan R. Wolpaw

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0024
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the ethical issues raised by brain-computer interface (BCI) research in humans. It is organized around the three principles set out in the Belmont Report of 1978, which is ... More


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