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Revolutionaries in Power, 1917–1923

Evan Mawdsley and Stephen White

in The Soviet Elite from Lenin to Gorbachev: The Central Committee and its Members 1917-1991

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297383
eISBN:
9780191599842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297386.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

The Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party, which constituted the political elite of Soviet Russia, was in Lenin's time, relatively homogeneous and was entirely composed of people who had ... More


Soviet ‘Federalism’

Jeffrey Kahn

in Federalism, Democratization, and the Rule of Law in Russia

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246991
eISBN:
9780191599606
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246998.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

Although most scholars were quick to puncture the Soviet Union's sham claims to democracy, too many accepted at face value its claim to be a federal state. The shifting debates about federalism in ... More


Official Conspiracy Theories and the Wagers of Genius

Priya Satia

in Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain's Covert Empire in the Middle East

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331417
eISBN:
9780199868070
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331417.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter describes the emergence of a conspiracy-thinking culture in the postwar British imperial state. As intelligence agents from the Middle East slipped into administrative roles in the ... More


The Reception of British Policy in Switzerland

NEVILLE WYLIE

in Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206903
eISBN:
9780191717338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206903.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, European Modern History

This chapter examines some of the historical, cultural, and institutional factors influencing Swiss policy and official attitudes during the war. It shows how changes in Switzerland's political and ... More


The Free Germany Manifesto and the German People: (August 6, 1943)

Franz Neumann

in Secret Reports on Nazi Germany: The Frankfurt School Contribution to the War Effort

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134130
eISBN:
9781400846467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134130.003.0013
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter examines the significance of the Free Germany Manifesto to the German people. Three facts made the Free Germany Manifesto significant: the backing it apparently received from the Soviet ... More


Defenders of the Motherland: The Tsarist Elite in Revolutionary Russia

Matthew Rendle

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199236251
eISBN:
9780191717154
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236251.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The Russian Revolution of 1917 has long been seen in terms of the political manoeuvrings of revolutionary politicians and the actions of lower social groups. This book argues that elite groups, ... More


The October Revolution

Matthew Rendle

in Defenders of the Motherland: The Tsarist Elite in Revolutionary Russia

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199236251
eISBN:
9780191717154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236251.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines how the Bolsheviks' October Revolution of 1917 heralded a sustained attack on elites, with the abolition of the nobility, landownership, and officer ranks. The Bolsheviks' fear ... More


Totalitarian Millennialism: The Bolshevik Apocalypse (1917–1935 ce)

Richard Landes

in Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of the Millennial Experience

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199753598
eISBN:
9780199897445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753598.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

This chapter traces how the dynamics of apocalyptic disappointment, led millennial ideologues (Bakùnin, Lenin, and Trotsky) to turn the politique du pire into coercive purity, setting the stage for a ... More


The Peace Conference of Paris, 1919–1920

Andreas Osiander

in The States System of Europe, 1640–1990: Peacemaking and the Conditions of International Stability

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198278870
eISBN:
9780191684258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198278870.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

With hindsight, Gentz's words take on the character of a prophecy. If 1789 is a key date for domestic political culture in Europe, then 1914 must be seen as a key date in the history of international ... More


‘One Russia is Enough for Us’: Two Revolutions in Budapest

Gábor Bátonyi

in Britain and Central Europe 1918–1933

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207481
eISBN:
9780191677687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207481.003.0009
Subject:
History, World Modern History

At the time of the Károlyi revolution towards the end of 1918, the Foreign Office still had no political interest in Hungary. The question of ... More


The Sanitary Iron Curtain: The Relief of Polish and Russian Typhus

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0028
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The breakdown of the cordon of preventive delousing stations, erected during the German occupation of Russian Poland, fuelled fears that a typhus epidemic was poised to race across Europe. The ... More


Hungarian Reconstruction and the Austrian Model

Gábor Bátonyi

in Britain and Central Europe 1918–1933

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207481
eISBN:
9780191677687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207481.003.0012
Subject:
History, World Modern History

In early 1922, the reconstruction of Austria was given priority over the rehabilitation of Hungary by the Foreign Office. Yet, British government ... More


Bolshevism as Fantasy: Fear of Revolution and Counter-Revolutionary Violence, 1917–1923

Robert Gerwarth and John Horne

in War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199654918
eISBN:
9780191744273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654918.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Military History

This chapter analyses the psychological effects of the Russian Revolution as a historical event that mobilized people across Europe in support of or in opposition to Bolshevism. The fantasy of a ... More


Bands of Nation Builders? Insurgency and Ideology in the Ukrainian Civil War

Serhy Yekelchyk

in War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199654918
eISBN:
9780191744273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654918.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Military History

Serhy Yelechyk's chapter throws new light on the emergence of independent Ukraine by exploring the gamut of complex ideological conflicts and local violence in 1917–20 which was unleashed by the ... More


Turning Citizens into Soldiers: Baltic Paramilitary Movements after the Great War

Tomas Balkelis

in War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199654918
eISBN:
9780191744273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654918.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Military History

In this chapter, Tomas Balkelis compares different paramilitary movements in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia and their pivotal importance in building these three newly independent nation-states.


Revolution and the ‘Dictatorship of the Proletariat’

Marc Mulholland

in Bourgeois Liberty and the Politics of Fear: From Absolutism to Neo-Conservatism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199653577
eISBN:
9780191744594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653577.003.0010
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Ideas

The outbreak of the Great War was not immanent in capitalism as such. However, industrial militarism shaped its form, and capitalism became significantly ‘corporatized’ during its course. For Lenin, ... More


Reverses

Michael J. Lansing

in Insurgent Democracy: The Nonpartisan League in North American Politics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226283500
eISBN:
9780226283647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226283647.003.0005
Subject:
History, Political History

NPL leaders admitted to a tight hold on the organization. They suggested that their objective—“to obtain democracy”—nonetheless made the League democratic. The strength of their opponents cemented ... More


Trials: Firestorms and Corruption, Terrorism and World War

Fred Rosenbaum

in Cosmopolitans: A Social and Cultural History of the Jews of the San Francisco Bay Area

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520259133
eISBN:
9780520945029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520259133.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

For all the optimism in San Francisco during the Progressive era, the thirteen years beginning with the earthquake and the resulting firestorms of 1906 were rancorous. Municipal government was ... More


The Great Fear: Stalin's Terror of the 1930s

James Harris

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199695768
eISBN:
9780191778971
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695768.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

Between the winter of 1936 and the autumn of 1938, approximately three-quarters of a million Soviet citizens were subject to summary execution. More than a million others were sentenced to lengthy ... More


Legacy of Blood: Jews, Pogroms, and Ritual Murder in the Lands of the Soviets

Elissa Bemporad

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190466459
eISBN:
9780190466480
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190466459.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This book traces the legacies of the two classical and most extreme manifestations of tsarist antisemitism—pogroms and blood libels—in the Soviet Union, from 1917 to the early 1960s. Closely ... More


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