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Einstein, Equipartition, Fluctuations, and Quanta

Anthony Duncan and Michel Janssen

in Constructing Quantum Mechanics: Volume 1: The Scaffold: 1900-1923

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845478
eISBN:
9780191880681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845478.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

After three papers on statistical mechanics, mostly duplicating work by Boltzmann and Gibbs, Einstein relied heavily on arguments from statistical mechanics in the most revolutionary of his famous ... More


Planck, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and Black‐body Radiation

Anthony Duncan and Michel Janssen

in Constructing Quantum Mechanics: Volume 1: The Scaffold: 1900-1923

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845478
eISBN:
9780191880681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845478.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Planck’s work on black‐body radiation grew out of a failed attempt to use electrodynamics to show that entropy can never decrease, i.e., that the second law of thermodynamics is not just a ... More


Hohlraum targets

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

Hohlraum targets are a special class of ICF targets, in which capsule ablation is driven by the thermal radiation inside a cavity, the so-called hohlraum. In this scheme, the laser or ion beams do ... More


Introduction to Volume One

Anthony Duncan and Michel Janssen

in Constructing Quantum Mechanics: Volume 1: The Scaffold: 1900-1923

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198845478
eISBN:
9780191880681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845478.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

We provide an overview, as non‐technical as possible, of the contents of Vol. 1 of the book. Reflecting the structure of the volume, this overview consists of two parts. In the first part, we ... More


Black-Body Radiation

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199646944
eISBN:
9780191775123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646944.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The beginning of quantum mechanics can plausibly be traced to a paper that Max Planck wrote in 1900, in which he derived the spectrum of black-body radiation. This chapter repeats that derivation and ... More


The influence of Boltzmann’s ideas on the science and technology of the twentieth century

CARLO CERCIGNANI

in Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The influence of Ludwig Boltzmann's ideas on physics as well as science and technology during the 20th century is obvious, even if it often appears as interpreted in the writings of different ... More


Thermodynamics

Nicholas Manton and Nicholas Mee

in The Physical World: An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198795933
eISBN:
9780191837111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198795933.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter is about thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, which explains macroscopic features of the world in terms of the motion of vast numbers of particles on the atomic scale. It discusses ... More


The universe: its structure and evolution

A. J. Leggett

in The Problems of Physics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211241
eISBN:
9780191706837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211241.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts by emphasizing that we can construct a picture of the universe as a whole only by extrapolating the laws of physics as we know them on earth to conditions almost unimaginably ... More


Solar Radiation through the Atmosphere

E. L. Wolf

in Physics and Technology of Sustainable Energy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198769804
eISBN:
9780191822636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198769804.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Maxwell’s equations describe radiated power from the Sun through space and the atmosphere to the Earth. Black-body radiation arises from matter in thermal equilibrium, as is derived in this chapter. ... More


Planck’s Derivation of E=hν: The Quantization of Energy

Jim Baggott

in The Quantum Cookbook: Mathematical Recipes for the Foundations for Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198827856
eISBN:
9780191866579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827856.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Planck was unwilling to accept Boltzmann’s statistical interpretation of the second law. He therefore needed to find a way to show how irreversible processes could result from continuous matter. ... More


Perfect Gas

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The perfect gas is perhaps the most prominent application of statistical mechanics and for this reason merits a chapter of its own. This chapter briefly reviews the quantum theory of many identical ... More


The Harmonic Solid

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199646944
eISBN:
9780191775123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646944.003.0025
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The harmonic solid is a model of vibrations in a crystal. It goes beyond the simpler Einstein model, which was discussed in Chapter 23. The low-temperature behaviour is shown to be extremely similar ... More


Elementary Properties of Light

Robert N. Compton and Michael A. Duncan

in Laser Experiments for Chemistry and Physics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198742975
eISBN:
9780191816932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742975.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter introduces the basic properties of light, starting with a description of the cosmic microwave background left over from the “Big Bang.” The wave nature of electromagnetic radiation is ... More


Solar Cell Physics and Technologies

E. L. Wolf

in Physics and Technology of Sustainable Energy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198769804
eISBN:
9780191822636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198769804.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Solar cells are based on semiconductor pn junctions. Absorption of sunlight is optimal at bandgap energies near one electron volt, and greatly increases the reverse current density. The efficiency of ... More


Some Physics Around 1900

Finn Aaserud and John L. Heilbron

in Love, Literature, and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr’s 1913 Trilogy Revisited

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680283
eISBN:
9780191760228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680283.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Chapter 2.2 describes the state of the microworld when Bohr entered it, notably the kinetic theory of gases and the problem of equipartition; the approach of the Cambridge School (J.J. Thomson, ... More


Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Robert N. Compton and Michael A. Duncan

in Laser Experiments for Chemistry and Physics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198742975
eISBN:
9780191816932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742975.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) represents a useful analytical tool for elemental analysis of solid or liquid materials. An intense pulsed laser can be employed, focused on the surface of ... More


The Electron and Chemical Periodicity

Eric Scerri

in The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190914363
eISBN:
9780197559925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190914363.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

J.J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron is one of the most celebrated events in the history of physics. What is not so well known is that Thomson had a deep interest ... More


Belji of Dhulikhel

Cheryl Colopy

in Dirty, Sacred Rivers: Confronting South Asia’s Water Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199845019
eISBN:
9780197563212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199845019.003.0016
Subject:
Environmental Science, Management of Land and Natural Resources

I first heard of Bel Prasad Shrestha five years before I met him. An article in the Nepali Times lauded his efforts to establish a water system in the town of Dhulikhel while he was its mayor. I ... More


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