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Constructing a Free Labor Market

Martin Ruef

in Between Slavery and Capitalism: The Legacy of Emancipation in the American South

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691162775
eISBN:
9781400852642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691162775.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter studies the extent to which the Freedmen Bureau's effort to reinstate plantation labor for former slaves in the mid-1860s was associated with changes in the valuation of black labor. ... More


Black Workers Remember: An Oral History of Segregation, Unionism, and the Freedom Struggle

Michael Keith Honey

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520217744
eISBN:
9780520928060
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520217744.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The labor of black workers has been crucial to economic development in the United States. Yet because of racism and segregation, their contribution remains largely unknown. Spanning the 1930s to the ... More


“Living in Two Worlds”: Civil Rights and Southern Textiles

Mary E. Frederickson

in Looking South: Race, Gender, and the Transformation of Labor from Reconstruction to Globalization

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813036038
eISBN:
9780813038469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813036038.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter places race at the center of an analysis of textile employment patterns across the twentieth century. Based on interviews with African American textile workers at a specific historical ... More


The Fate of the Black Working Class: The Global Economy, Rachism, and Union Organizing

MICHAEL KEITH HONEY

in Black Workers Remember: An Oral History of Segregation, Unionism, and the Freedom Struggle

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520217744
eISBN:
9780520928060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520217744.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter explains that by the mid-1970s, black workers in a core of unionized factory jobs had torn down most Jim Crow barriers within their workplaces and unionism after decades of painful ... More


“We’ll Build Our Own Thing”: The Exit Strategy of the National Association of Black Social Workers

Joyce M. Bell

in The Black Power Movement and American Social Work

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162609
eISBN:
9780231538015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162609.003.0006
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter discusses how not all black social worker activists decided to work within organizations. The social workers who chose to participate with organizations eventually created an autonomous ... More


“Will ‘Our People’ Be Any Better Off After This War?”

Jeffrey Helgeson

in Crucibles of Black Empowerment: Chicago’s Neighborhood Politics from the New Deal to Harold Washington

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226130699
eISBN:
9780226130729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226130729.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

World War II has been seen as a watershed moment in black history. The wartime economic boom lifted black Americans out of the Depression and inspired the mass activism that became the seeds of the ... More


Capitalism without Capital: Postwar Employment Activism

Jeffrey Helgeson

in Crucibles of Black Empowerment: Chicago’s Neighborhood Politics from the New Deal to Harold Washington

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226130699
eISBN:
9780226130729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226130729.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

Like Chapter 4, this chapter details the uneven opportunities black workers faced during the postwar economic boom. Even as the economy grew, stable, low-skilled jobs were disappearing. In the face ... More


Competition in Northern Labor Markets

Leah Platt Boustan

in Competition in the Promised Land: Black Migrants in Northern Cities and Labor Markets

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691150871
eISBN:
9781400882977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150871.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter shows that northern employers used black migrants more interchangeably with other black workers than with similarly skilled white workers in the North. The lack of substitutability ... More


North of the Color Line: Migration and Black Resistance in Canada, 1870-1955

Sarah-Jane Mathieu

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807834299
eISBN:
9781469603858
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807899397_mathieu
Subject:
History, African-American History

This book examines life in Canada for the estimated 5,000 blacks, both African Americans and West Indians, who immigrated to Canada after the end of Reconstruction in the United States. Through the ... More


Henry Ford Ushers in a New Era for Black Workers

Beth Tompkins Bates

in The Making of Black Detroit in the Age of Henry Ford

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780807835647
eISBN:
9781469601571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807837450_bates.7
Subject:
History, African-American History

Henry Ford embraced the idea of hiring large numbers of black workers in 1919 and soon became the largest single employer of blacks in the automobile industry. This chapter presents theories that ... More


“I Have My Own Room on 139th Street”: Black Women and the Urban Sex Economy

LaShawn Harris

in Sex Workers, Psychics, and Numbers Runners: Black Women in New York City's Underground Economy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040207
eISBN:
9780252098420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040207.003.0005
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter explores black women's multilayered roles within New York's sex commerce, moving beyond widely accepted historical interpretations that position black sex laborers primarily as street ... More


The Black Power Movement and American Social Work

Joyce Bell

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162609
eISBN:
9780231538015
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162609.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

The Black Power movement has often been portrayed in history and popular culture as the quintessential “bad boy” of modern black movement-making in America. Yet this impression misses the full extent ... More


Unfinished Revolutions

Marcia Walker-McWilliams

in Reverend Addie Wyatt: Faith and the Fight for Labor, Gender, and Racial Equality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040528
eISBN:
9780252098963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040528.003.0008
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines the tense last years of Addie Wyatt's formal leadership in the United Food and Commercial Workers from 1979 to 1984, and looks at the promises and perils of black political and ... More


Introduction: Race, Resistance, and the Civil Sphere

Joyce M. Bell

in The Black Power Movement and American Social Work

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162609
eISBN:
9780231538015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162609.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This introductory chapter examines the historical documents of two black social movements, National Conference on Social Welfare (NCSW) and National Federation of Settlements (NFS). The differences ... More


Race and Gender at Work: From the Labor Journalism of Marvel Cooke to Vicki Garvin and the National Negro Labor Council, 1935–1956

Dayo F. Gore

in Radicalism at the Crossroads: African American Women Activists in the Cold War

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814732366
eISBN:
9780814733028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814732366.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

Drawing on the work and writings of Marvel Cooke and Vicki Garvin, this chapter explores how black women analyzed—and resisted—the dual impact of gender and race discrimination in the labor market ... More


Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963

David Hamilton Golland

in Constructing Affirmative Action: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813129976
eISBN:
9780813135472
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813129976.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

Maxwell C. Stanford and Stanley Daniels were African Americans who had gone to a Philadelphia school construction site demonstration in order to document what the NAACP intended to be a peaceful ... More


Opportunities Found and Lost: Labor, Radicals, and the Early Civil Rights Movement

Robert Korstad

in A Contest of Ideas: Capital, Politics, and Labor

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252037856
eISBN:
9780252095122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252037856.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter explores two examples of the workplace-oriented civil rights militancy that arose in the 1940s—one in the South and one in the North. It analyzes the unionization of predominantly black ... More


“We Stand Before You, Not as a Separatist Body”: The Techni-Culture Movement to Gain Voice in the National Federation of Settlements

Joyce M. Bell

in The Black Power Movement and American Social Work

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162609
eISBN:
9780231538015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162609.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter outlines the mobilization process of black social workers within the National Federation of Settlements (NFS). This process resulted in the emergence of the Black Caucus of Settlement ... More


The Fearless Firsts

Michelle A. Purdy

in Transforming the Elite: Black Students and the Desegregation of Private Schools

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781469643496
eISBN:
9781469643519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469643496.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter documents the first years of school desegregation at Westminster. By 1967, Westminster was a nationally known school whose alumni attended colleges and universities across the nation, ... More


We Depend on Others Too Much: Garveyism and Labor Radicalism in the Caribbean Basin

Frederick Douglass Opie

in Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882–1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813033716
eISBN:
9780813038735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813033716.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter investigates the organization of the black Caribbean coast under the influence of Garveyism. Starting in the 1920s, Marcus Garvey's followers founded local branches of the Universal ... More


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