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COLOR AND PATTERN

Ernest H. Williams

in The Nature Handbook: A Guide to Observing the Great Outdoors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179293
eISBN:
9780199790470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179293.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

To us, the most conspicuous feature of an animal is its appearance because, as visually oriented creatures, we perceive and respond quickly to varying colors and patterns. This chapter includes ... More


Light and the Optical Environment

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explains how humans, and nearly all animals on Earth, witness astonishing variation in their optical environment. Brightness changes by many orders of magnitude each day, and colors also ... More


Countershading and counterillumination

Graeme D. Ruxton, Thomas N. Sherratt, and Michael P. Speed

in Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528609
eISBN:
9780191713392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter considers if and why lightening the ventral regions (through pigmentation or bioluminescence) can act to make an organism more difficult to detect as a three-dimensional object. The most ... More


Emission

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines light emission. There are only a few ways of making light, the main two categories being (1) thermal radiation, where light emission is related to the temperature of an object, ... More


Fluorescence

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter looks at fluorescence. Fluorescence does not make light. This misunderstanding comes in two ways. The first is a common misuse of terms. Historically, bioluminescence was often referred ... More


Fiery Clouds in the Jungle

Helmut Satz

in The Rules of the Flock: Self-Organization and Swarm Structure in Animal Societies

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198853398
eISBN:
9780191888052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853398.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The bioluminescence of Malaysian fireflies shows extremely precise synchronization, implying that each animal possesses an intrinsic timing device allowing synchronization of all animals in the ... More


Oceanic Anglerfishes: Extraordinary Diversity in the Deep Sea

Theodore Pietsch

Enrique Lessa and Jorge Salazar-Bravo (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255425
eISBN:
9780520942554
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255425.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

No environment on Earth imposes greater physical and biological constraints on life than the deep oceanic midwaters. Near-freezing temperatures, the absence of sunlight, enormous pressure, and a low ... More


The Deep, the Cold, the Dark: Life at the End of the Line

Wolf H. Berger

in Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses deep-sea life, the largest life habitat on Earth. It focuses on the diversity of organisms living in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic depth zones of the ocean—that is, the ... More


Deep Sea

MARGARET A. NEIGHBORS and RAYMOND R. WILSON

in The Ecology of Marine Fishes: California and Adjacent Waters

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520246539
eISBN:
9780520932470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520246539.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Below the euphotic epipelagic zone is the realm of deep-sea fishes. The depth zones of this major portion of the earth's oceans have been characterized by the physical features and types of organisms ... More


Ecology Emergent

John L. Culliney and David Jones

in The Fractal Self: Science, Philosophy, and the Evolution of Human Cooperation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780824866617
eISBN:
9780824875763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824866617.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Ever since life’s debut on the earth, biotic evolution has been a near-balancing act. On virtually every level, competition and cooperation, shifting endlessly between foreground and background, have ... More


Blue Moons and Red Tides

Pete A. Ensminger

in Life Under the Sun

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300088045
eISBN:
9780300133523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300088045.003.0014
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter describes the blue moon phenomenon, the effect of anomalous aerosol light scattering, and the red tide and dead fish event caused by dinoflagellate and Gymnodinium brevis. Various ... More


Symbiosis and microbes

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199586936
eISBN:
9780191774645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586936.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses interactions between microbes and higher plants and animals. Symbiosis is sometimes used to describe all interactions, even negative ones. The chapter focuses on interactions ... More


Sensory systems—photoreception

Jill Lancaster and Barbara J. Downes

in Aquatic Entomology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199573219
eISBN:
9780191774850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573219.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter provides an overview of the structure and function of insect photoreceptors, highlighting some problems (and solutions) peculiar to aquatic insect taxa. The physical properties of light ... More


Symbioses and microbes

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The book ends with a chapter devoted to discussing interactions between microbes and higher plants and animals. Symbiosis is sometimes used to describe all interactions, even negative ones, between ... More


Modeling and Simulating Radiative Transfer in the Ocean

Howard R. Gordon

in Ocean Optics

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195068436
eISBN:
9780197560235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195068436.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The propagation of light in the sea is of interest in many areas of oceanography: light provides the energy that powers primary productivity in the ocean; light diffusely reflected by the ocean ... More


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