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Stereotypical Neglect of Military Research, Development, and Acquisition for Biodefense

Frank L. Smith

in American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801452710
eISBN:
9780801455162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452710.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter examines the history of military research, development, and acquisition for biodefense, from pre-World War II through the 2003 Iraq War. Neglect in each area is evident throughout the ... More


From Medical Research to Biological Warfare

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0051
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Campaigns against insects in the east became entwined with preparations for biological warfare. The idea of unleashing disease pathogens to destroy Nazi Germany's enemies fascinated disinfection ... More


A Brief History of Bioterrorism

William R. Clark

in Bracing for Armageddon?: The Science and Politics of Bioterrorism in America

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195336214
eISBN:
9780199868537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336214.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Chapter 2 traces the history of bioterrorism in the US and eldewhere, beginning with the Rajneeshee episode in Oregon in 1985. The unsuccessful Aum Shinrikyo forays into bioterrorism in Japan in the ... More


Case Study: Biological Weapons Verification

Caroline Fehl

in Living with a Reluctant Hegemon: Explaining European Responses to US Unilateralism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199608621
eISBN:
9780191731730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608621.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The verification protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention is the subject of the last case study. In the negotiations over this agreement, European advocates of intrusive verification were ready ... More


Microbes for War and Peace: On the Military Origins of Containment

Melanie Armstrong

in Germ Wars: The Politics of Microbes and America's Landscape of Fear

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520292765
eISBN:
9780520966147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520292765.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

When the U.S. military created a bioweapons research program at Fort Detrick, Maryland, following World War II, it enlisted microbiology in the production of modern warfare. Biological weapons ... More


Pandemic Disease, Biological Weapons, and War

Lawrence Douglas, Austin Sarat, and Laura K. Donohue

in Law and War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780804787420
eISBN:
9780804788861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804787420.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

Broadly historical in its perspective, Laura Donohue tells a story of the blurring of categories. From the founding of the Republic through the end of the twentieth century, the legal authority to ... More


War: from humanitarian relief to prevention

Douglas Holdstock

in International Co-operation in Health

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192631985
eISBN:
9780191723582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192631985.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the impact of war on health. It begins by considering the health impact and response to specific types of weapons, and the role of the arms trade. It then discusses the broader ... More


American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

Frank L. III Smith

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801452710
eISBN:
9780801455162
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801452710.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

Biological weapons have threatened U.S. national security since at least World War II. Historically, however, the U.S. military has neglected research, development, acquisition, and doctrine for ... More


Arms Dynamics, the Changing Threat Environment, and the Chemical and Biological Weapons Prohibition Regimes

in Preventing a Biochemical Arms Race

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804782753
eISBN:
9780804786157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804782753.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter presents a description on the efficiency of an measure of arms control. The threat environment and the chemical and biological weapons prohibition regimes are then explored. The ... More


On the Brink of Bacteriological War: Stalin’s BW Programme and the Second World War

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History

During the 1930s, a series of reports generated by both German and Soviet intelligence fueled increasing alarm with regard to the perceived BW capabilities allegedly being developed by their ... More


Threats to the CBW Prohibition Regimes: Biodefense Pushed Too Far

in Preventing a Biochemical Arms Race

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804782753
eISBN:
9780804786157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804782753.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter discusses the promotion of biodefense. If biodefense is pushed too far, the question naturally arises whether this can cause problems that threaten the regimes or undermine other ... More


Origins: The Launch of the Moscow Strand of the Red Army’s Offensive Biological Warfare Programme

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Although unprecedented in scale and ambition, Stalin’s offensive biological warfare program was not an isolated phenomenon. It can instead be viewed as a response to, and extension of, the biological ... More


The Soviet Union’s Enigma BW Programme: Military-Biological Research in Leningrad

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The British Secret Intelligence Service identified the RSFSR People’s Commissariat of Health (RSFSR Narkomzdrav) as being the main agency within which ostensibly civil facilities engaged in offensive ... More


Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Anthony Rimmington

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Stalin's Secret Weapon is a gripping account of the early history of the globally significant Soviet biological weapons program, including its key scientists, its secret experimental bases and the ... More


Genomes and What to Make of Them

Barry Barnes and John Dupre

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226172958
eISBN:
9780226172965
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226172965.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The announcement in 2003 that the Human Genome Project had completed its map of the entire human genome was heralded as a stunning scientific breakthrough. Since then, boasts about the benefits—and ... More


From Defence to Offence: The Development of the Red Army’s Biological Warfare Facilities at Vlasikha

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

In April 1934 Stalin called a key meeting of the Politburo to hear reports relating to Soviet biological weapons programs. At the end of the meeting he concluded that all facilities working in the ... More


From Shikhany to Vozrozhdenie Island: The Selection of Open-Air Proving Grounds for the Soviet Offensive BW Programme

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

A key requirement with regard to the Soviet Union’s preparedness for biological warfare was the identification of a location—preferably an island—for use in field tests of bacteriological agents. ... More


Stalin’s BW Archipelago: Mapping-Out a New Post-War BW Network

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0011
Subject:
History, European Modern History

During the immediate post-war period, Lavrentiy Beria, the Soviet minister of internal affairs, continued to maintain control of the Soviet biological warfare program and to further develop its ... More


The Rise and Fall of a Working-Class Hero: Ivan Mikhailovich Velikanov, Lead Scientist of the Soviet Union’s Offensive BW Programme

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

In July 1937, the lead scientist of the Soviet Union’s offensive BW program, Ivan Mikhailovich Velikanov, was one of a large number of prominent biological warfare specialists to be arrested by the ... More


Yesterday Today: Stalin’s Legacy and Russia’s Current Military Biological Network

Anthony Rimmington

in Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190928858
eISBN:
9780190943141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928858.003.0013
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Knowledge of Stalin’s historical biological warfare network is crucial to making sense of the vast offensive biological warfare program launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. It is also a crucial ... More


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