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The Regularity Theory II: Laws and Accidental Generalizations

Bernard Berofsky

in Nature's Challenge to Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199640010
eISBN:
9780191738197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640010.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

The critiques of the regularity theory by Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, and D. M. Armstrong are shown to fail. A categorization of “accidental generalizations” is offered. The failures of the best ... More


Physics and the Humean approach to Probability

Carl Hoefer

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends a Humean approach to objective probabilities in physics. Two motivations for a Humean account of probabilities are distinguished: One derives from a general commitment to a ... More


Best‐System Approaches

Gordon Belot

in Geometric Possibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199595327
eISBN:
9780191729157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595327.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines a variety of modal relationalism that is analogous to the Humean best‐system account of laws of nature. It is argued that best‐system accounts face daunting difficulties: they ... More


The Regularity Theory I: Humean Supervenience

Bernard Berofsky

in Nature's Challenge to Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199640010
eISBN:
9780191738197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640010.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

A central tenet of the regularity theory is the doctrine of Humean supervenience (HS), the view that two worlds that are identical in their nonnomic facts must be identical in their laws. John ... More


Communal Lists, Reserved Seats, and Lower Thresholds

David Lublin

in Minority Rules: Electoral Systems, Decentralization, and Ethnoregional Party Success

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199948826
eISBN:
9780190209339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199948826.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter explores rules that may aid ethnoregional parties such as communal lists, reserved seats, and lower thresholds. It first examines countries that reserve seats—sometimes paired with ... More


A Perspectivalist Better Best System Account of Lawhood

Michela Massimi

in Laws of Nature

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198746775
eISBN:
9780191809057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746775.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, History of Philosophy

On David Lewis’s influential view, modal facts supervene on the mosaic of non-modal facts about sparse natural properties. This chapter defends a Lewisian account of laws that abandons this ... More


Laws, Systems, and Time

Craig Callender

in What Makes Time Special?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198797302
eISBN:
9780191839603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797302.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Philosophers and others have posited many metaphysical differences between time and space. An old and deep one connects physical modality with time. This chapter develops a particular version of this ... More


Causation and Laws

Paul Noordhof

in A Variety of Causes

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780199251469
eISBN:
9780191892271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199251469.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Laws are potential patterns of causation characterized by the counterfactual analysis. The various accounts of law in the literature—or proposed refinements of them—are not properly thought of as ... More


Powerful Properties, Powerless Laws

Heather Demarest

in Causal Powers

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198796572
eISBN:
9780191837838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198796572.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A familiar choice-point in the laws of nature debate is whether the laws do any important metaphysical work. Some philosophers, such as Fred Dretske, Michael Tooley, David Armstrong, and Tim Maudlin, ... More


Consistency and Admissibility: Reply to Meacham

Carl Hoefer

in Chance and Temporal Asymmetry

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199673421
eISBN:
9780191782534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199673421.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In his contribution to this volume, Christopher Meacham identifies a possibly serious defect of the pragmatic Humean approach to laws and chance, compared to the more fundamentalist/reductionist ... More


Proving the Principal Principle

Wolfgang Schwarz

in Chance and Temporal Asymmetry

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199673421
eISBN:
9780191782534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199673421.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Any credible interpretation of objective chance should make sense of the connection between objective chance and rational degree of belief. Ideally, an account that identifies chance with some ... More


Loose Ends

Neil E. Williams

in The Powers Metaphysic

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198833574
eISBN:
9780191872006
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833574.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The aim of this final chapter is to tie up some of the loose ends in the powers metaphysic. The first part of the chapter discusses what a powers theorist might say about the laws of nature. A hybrid ... More


The Ontology of Chance

Paul Noordhof

in A Variety of Causes

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780199251469
eISBN:
9780191892271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199251469.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Just as laws are variably realized so are objective chances: in the patterns identified by the best system analysis and in propensities. Theories of chance face two significant problems: the problem ... More


Interventionism and the Missing Metaphysics: A Dialogue

James Woodward

in Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: New Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199363209
eISBN:
9780199363216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199363209.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A number of philosophers with a metaphysical orientation have criticized the interventionist account of causation that have been defended in Making Things Happen and elsewhere for its failure to ... More


Laws: An Invariance-Based Account

James Woodward

in Laws of Nature

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198746775
eISBN:
9780191809057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746775.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, History of Philosophy

This chapter defends an invariance-based account of laws of nature. In constructing a physical theory one looks for a cut or contrast between laws and initial conditions such that (i) the laws are ... More


An Empiricist’s Guide to Objective Modality

Jenann Ismael

in Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: New Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199363209
eISBN:
9780199363216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199363209.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Modality is a sticking point for empiricists. Some recognize that science comes with a heavy dose of modal commitment and accept modality on the strength of their commitment to science. Others shun ... More


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