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Leibniz's Theories of Contingency

Robert Merrihew Adams

in Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195126495
eISBN:
9780199870974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195126491.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Many interpreters have supposed that the root of contingency in Leibniz's thought is that it is contingent rather than necessary that God chooses to create the best possible world. It is far from ... More


The Freedom of God

Katherin A. Rogers

in Anselm on Freedom

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199231676
eISBN:
9780191716089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231676.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, General

Unlike created freedom, divine freedom does not require open options. God exists absolutely independently and so choose with complete aseity. God has neither morally significant freedom nor, contrary ... More


Possible Worlds

Benson Mates

in The Philosophy of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Language

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195059465
eISBN:
9780199833429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195059468.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

According to Leibniz, the actual world, which does exist, is only one of infinitely many possible worlds that could have existed. It is the best of the possible worlds, in the sense that any change ... More


Divine Perfection and Freedom

William Rowe

in Evidence and Religious Belief

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199603718
eISBN:
9780191729287
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603718.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter argues that the requirements for absolute moral perfection and freedom that theists traditionally ascribe to God cannot be met, and hence that traditional theism should be rejected. ... More


Non-Identity Theodicy

Vince R. Vitale

in Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter develops Non-Identity Theodicy—that is, theodicy primarily claiming that our existence as the individuals we are depends on God’s policy of evil and suffering allowance. Non-Identity ... More


Religion and the Hypertime Hypothesis II

Hud Hudson

in The Fall and Hypertime

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198712695
eISBN:
9780191781025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712695.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The widely discussed arguments for atheism known as the Problem of Evil, the Problem of the Best, and the Problem of No Best World are grounded on the alleged lack of morally justifying reasons for ... More


Indiscernible possibilia and the perfection of the world

Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra

in Leibniz’s Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780198712664
eISBN:
9780191781018
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712664.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The arguments for the Identity of Indiscernibles in the Meditation on the Principle of the Individual, the Discourse on Metaphysics, Notationes Generales, and Primary Truths support the strong ... More


Vindicatio Dei: Evil as a Result of God’s Free Choice of the Best

Michael J. Murray

in New Essays on Leibniz's Theodicy

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660032
eISBN:
9780191761133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660032.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Central to Leibniz’s theodicy is the claim that God has chosen to actualize the best of all possible worlds. Indeed, Leibniz goes further, arguing that God’s perfection not only leads God to ... More


The Explanatory Power of Theism: General Considerations

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239635
eISBN:
9780191598609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239637.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Evidence e renders a hypothesis be more probable insofar as both the prior probability of b is high and its explanatory power (that is the probability of the evidence given the hypothesis divided by ... More


The Best of All Possible Worlds?

Nicola Hoggard Creegan

in Animal Suffering and the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199931842
eISBN:
9780199345762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931842.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter continues the theological examination of the problem of evil. It examines the fault line in theological responses to evil: is this the only way God could possibly have made a world? Is ... More


Divine Aseity

Oliver D. Crisp

in Jonathan Edwards on God and Creation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199755295
eISBN:
9780199979486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755295.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Theology

The flip side of this doctrine is divine aseity, or divine independence. Chapter 4 deals with this doctrine. Edwards's position is consistent with God's metaphysical independence of the creation. But ... More


Introduction: The Problem of Horrendous Evils

Vince R. Vitale

in Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198864226
eISBN:
9780191896392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864226.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter introduces the problem of evil and then the more specific problem of horrendous evil (that is, the argument that the existence of horrendous evils makes the existence of God impossible ... More


God Does the Best: A Neoplatonic Meditation on O’Connor

Katherin A. Rogers

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 10

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
March 2022
ISBN:
9780192862976
eISBN:
9780191953965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192862976.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Suppose God is perfectly good, perfectly rational, and perfectly free. Must He be able to do other than He does? Mark Johnston and Timothy O’Connor hold that God must have libertarian freedom. The ... More


Animal Suffering—Philosophical Responses

Nicola Hoggard Creegan

in Animal Suffering and the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199931842
eISBN:
9780199345762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931842.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The chapter examines philosophical approaches to the problem of evil. The philosophical arguments for the existence of God, given the presence of evolutionary evil and suffering, can in some sense be ... More


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