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 Knowing and Naming in Theology and Science

Gloria L. Schaab

in Creative Suffering of the Triune God: An Evolutionary Theology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195329124
eISBN:
9780199785711
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329124.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Chapter 3 addresses the question of how theology in dialogue with science authentically expresses insights concerning the ineffable mystery of God and suffering. Because neither science nor theology ... More


 Causation

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This is by far the longest chapter of the book. It deals with the most important and mysterious natural modality: causation. It proceeds from the basic idea underlying all deterministic and ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) and the Causal and Scientific Reasoning of Nonscientists

Barbara Koslowski

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Several researchers have drawn attention to the distinction between idealized models of science and descriptions of actual scientific practice (or inference to the best explanation). Several notions ... More


Explanation

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the more recent attempts to rescue the indispensability argument for platonism by appeal to the explanatory contributions which mathematics makes in science. Pincock argues that ... More


The Rainbow

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Batterman has emphasized the importance of asymptotic explanation where the explanation involves taking limits. This chapter presents a detailed reconstruction of one such explanation. It involves ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation: Salvation by Laws?

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Induction has given way to Infere nce to the Best Explanation (IBE) in the epistemology hospitable to realism, or to metaphysics in general. Both Dretske and Armstrong provide severe critiques of ... More


When Explanation Leads to Inference

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

When is it justified to infer from the fact that a theory provides a good explanation of phenomena to the truth of the theory used in explanation (i.e. inference to the best explanation)? Bas van ... More


The Reality of Causes in a World of Instrumental Laws

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Argues in favour of a distinction between causal and theoretical explanation and claims that scientific realism can be defended for the former, but the latter can only defensibly be interpreted via ... More


Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines and criticizes the main arguments offered for scientific realism, here identified as the following view: Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what ... More


Evidence and Objectivity in Achinstein's Philosophy of Science

Gerald Doppelt

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter advances a critical evaluation of Achinstein's account of scientific evidence in The Book of Evidence. The chapter argues that weaknesses in his account motivate an alternative position ... More


Locke's Defense of the Senses

Georges Dicker

in Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195381467
eISBN:
9780199897124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381467.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter closely analyzes Locke's attempt, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, to deal with the problem of perception—an attempt that Berkeley knew well and trenchantly criticized. It ... More


The Argument from the Deliberative Indispensability of Irreducibly Normative Truths

David Enoch

in Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199579969
eISBN:
9780191729010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579969.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter develops a positive argument for Robust Metanormative Realism that is modeled after indispensability arguments in the philosophy of mathematics or inferences to the best explanation more ... More


Theory Appraisal: Inference to the Best Explanation

Brian D. Haig

in Investigating the Psychological World: Scientific Method in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027366
eISBN:
9780262322379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027366.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter recommends the use of inference to the best explanation for evaluating the worth of theories in psychology. It is suggested that it is a more appropriate account of theory appraisal than ... More


Evidence

Timothy Williamson

in Knowledge and its Limits

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256563
eISBN:
9780191598678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925656X.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that one's total evidence is simply one's total knowledge. Evidence is primarily relevant to evaluating propositions of whose truth values one is ignorant. Since knowledge is not ... More


Towards a New Epistemology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The underground river of probabilism, slowly growing in force over three centuries, burst forth above ground in the twentieth century and brought new hope for epistemology. Probabilism sees its ... More


The Justification of the Principle of Charity

Ernie Lepore and Kirk Ludwig

in Donald Davidson: Meaning, Truth, Language, and Reality

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199251346
eISBN:
9780191602634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199251347.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Takes up the question of how to justify the Principle of Charity. Three a priori arguments are examined, the argument from the holism of attitude content, the argument to the best explanation of ... More


Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Kevin McCain and Ted Poston (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Explanatory reasoning is quite common. Not only are rigorous inferences to the best explanation used pervasively in the sciences, explanatory reasoning is virtually ubiquitous in everyday life. ... More


Reality

Paul Thagard

in Natural Philosophy: From Social Brains to Knowledge, Reality, Morality, and Beauty

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190678739
eISBN:
9780190686451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190678739.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

Following a naturalistic approach to metaphysics, this chapter argues that materialism and scientific realism are much more plausible than their major alternatives: idealism and social ... More


Antiskepticism about Dreaming and Dream Reporting: From Default Assumption to Theoretical Justification

Jennifer M. Windt

in Dreaming: A Conceptual Framework for Philosophy of Mind and Empirical Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028677
eISBN:
9780262327466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028677.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The chapter brings together the two lines of thought investigated in chapters 1-3. These are the philosophical debate on dream experience and dream reporting, ranging from Cartesian dream skepticism ... More


Newtonian Extensions, a Rival, Justifying Induction, and Evidence

Peter Achinstein

in Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199921850
eISBN:
9780199332892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921850.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers several extensions of Newton's rules. These include a powerful rival methodology, viz. “inference to the best explanation,” which is rejected; Hume's problem of justifying ... More


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