Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

You are looking at 1-20 of 28 items

  • Keywords: benzene x
Clear All Modify Search

View:

Structure and bonding in some simple hydrocarbons and in ethane and ethene analogues of the heavier Group 14 elements

Arne Haaland

in Molecules and Models: The molecular structures of main group element compounds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235353
eISBN:
9780191715594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235353.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the molecular structures and CC bond energies in ethane, ethene, and ethyne, and the bonding in terms of the molecular orbital model. The delocalized π molecular orbitals ... More


The Impact of Inorganic Trace Gases on Ozone in the Atmosphere

Jack G. Calvert, John J. Orlando, William R. Stockwell, and Timothy J. Wallington

in The Mechanisms of Reactions Influencing Atmospheric Ozone

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190233020
eISBN:
9780197559529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190233020.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

A major focus of the previous six chapters has been on the chemistry and interactions of the HOx, NOx, and volatile organic compound (VOC) families. Details of the ... More


Boll Weevils, Worms, and Moths: A Hundred-Year War

D. Clayton Brown

in King Cotton in Modern America: A Cultural, Political, and Economic History since 1945

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2014
ISBN:
9781604737981
eISBN:
9781604737998
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781604737981.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter describes the struggle against boll weevils. The Mexican boll weevil (A. grandis) became the most dreaded insect pest of the South, with its capacity to wipe out entire fields of cotton. ... More


Kekulé's “Dreams”

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

At a celebration held in his honor in Berlin on March 11, 1890, August Kekulé told his “dream stories.” According to Arthur Koestler, Kekulé's benzene story was “probably the most important dream in ... More


Aromatic Apparitions

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Benzene, the prototype of what chemists call “aromatic” substances, was first isolated from coal gas by Michael Faraday in 1825. In 1832, Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler collaborated on a ... More


Dimensional Molecules

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Every perceptive atomist recognizes the truism that atoms exist in a three-dimensional space. This chapter traces the evolution of certain theories from John Dalton to Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff ... More


Kopp's World

in Image and Reality: Kekule, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226723327
eISBN:
9780226723358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226723358.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Hermann Kopp (1817–1892) made a number of important scientific and historical contributions, especially in the field of chemistry, and wrote a book entitled Aus der Molecular-Welt (From the Molecular ... More


Chemical Hazards

Michael Gochfeld and Robert Laumbach

in Occupational and Environmental Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190662677
eISBN:
9780190662707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662677.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Building on the principles of toxicology, this chapter describes chemicals by structure, source, use, mechanism of action, environmental properties, and target organ. Major advances in toxic effects ... More


Light emitting polymers

William Barford

in Electronic and Optical Properties of Conjugated Polymers

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199677467
eISBN:
9780191757402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677467.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

An experimental survey of the optical properties of the phenyl-based light emitting polymers (poly (para-phenylene) and poly (para-phenylene vinylene)) is given. These are then explained by ... More


Electronic Warfare: Electrophilic Substitution

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0021
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Benzene, 1, is a hard nut to crack. The hexagonal ring of carbon atoms each with one hydrogen atom attached has a much greater stability than its electronic structure, with an alternation of double ... More


Carbon in atomic, molecular and crystalline (3D and 2D) forms

E. L. Wolf

in Graphene: A New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199645862
eISBN:
9780191767852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The carbon atom is discussed in the Bohr and Schrödinger pictures. Radii and energies of core and valence states are estimated. Ionization levels of carbon are used to estimate properties at variable ... More


We’re on the road to nowhere: An exhibition of molecules to transport us

John Emsley

in Molecules at an Exhibition: Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502661
eISBN:
9780191916458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502661.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The rays of the Sun, and the motions of the Moon and Earth, provide energy in abundance. Light from the Sun is absorbed by plants on land and algae in the sea and is used to convert carbon dioxide ... More


Approximate Molecular Orbital Theory: The Hückel/Tight-binding Model

Jochen Autschbach

in Quantum Theory for Chemical Applications: From Basic Concepts to Advanced Topics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190920807
eISBN:
9780197508350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190920807.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Quantum and Theoretical Chemistry

Huckel molecular orbital (HMO) theory is a simple approximate parameterized molecular orbital (MO) theory that has been very successful in organic chemistry and other fields. This chapter introduces ... More


Leukemias

Eve Roman, Alexandra Smith, and Lorelei Mucci

in Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780190676827
eISBN:
9780190676858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190676827.003.0028
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Leukemias are a diverse group of acute and chronic haematological malignancies, that account for 2% to 3% of cancers globally. Recent advances in molecular biology and therapy have transformed the ... More


Leukemias

Martha S. Linet, Lindsay M. Morton, Susan S. Devesa, and Graça M. Dores

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0038
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms categorized “the leukemias” into two major groupings—myeloid and lymphoid. Myeloid neoplasms, which are ... More


Conjugated and aromatic molecules

John H. D. Eland and Raimund Feifel

in Double Photoionisation Spectra of Molecules

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198788980
eISBN:
9780191830983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198788980.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

In the vast majority of conjugated and aromatic molecules, the outermost occupied orbitals are either of π‎ character or non-bonding lone pairs belonging to heteroatoms. These are the orbitals from ... More


Core–core and core–valence double ionisation

John H. D. Eland and Raimund Feifel

in Double Photoionisation Spectra of Molecules

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198788980
eISBN:
9780191830983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198788980.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Basic concepts of inner shell double ionisation phenomena are discussed and examples are presented. An empirical model to calculate single-site K-shell double ionisation energies is proposed and the ... More


X-ray Diffraction and the Electrostatic Potential

Philip Coppens

in X-Ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195098235
eISBN:
9780197560877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195098235.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The distribution of positive and negative charge in a crystal fully defines physical properties like the electrostatic potential and its derivatives, the electric field, and the gradient of the ... More


The Electron Density and the Lattice Energy of Crystals

Philip Coppens

in X-Ray Charge Densities and Chemical Bonding

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195098235
eISBN:
9780197560877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195098235.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The total energy of a quantum-mechanical system can be written as the sum of its kinetic energy T, Coulombic energy ECoui and exchange and electron correlation contributions Ex and Ecorr, ... More


Introduction

Jenny Pickworth Glusker and Kenneth N. Trueblood

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199576340
eISBN:
9780191917905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199576340.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

Much of our present knowledge of the architecture of molecules has been obtained from studies of the diffraction of X rays or neutrons by crystals. X rays are scattered by the electrons of atoms ... More


View: