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 Comparisons

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

There is a large spectrum of representations of belief states besides probabilities and ranks. The chapter cannot give a complete survey, but it presents comparisons with a number of important ... More


 The Representation of Belief: Some Standard Moves

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter introduces and discusses the standard static laws of belief, consistency and deductive closure, as well as the first steps towards a dynamics of belief. The latter amounts to an ... More


What Is Truth? Newman’s Theory of Belief

Robert Pattison

in The Great Dissent: John Henry Newman and the Liberal Heresy

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195067309
eISBN:
9780199855193
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195067309.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

From Newman's confrontations with the contemporary liberalism of Hampden and with the ancient error of Arius, he emerged with his own dogmatic philosophy fully developed. Heresy had led him to truth. ... More


Sense and Reference

DAVID PAPINEAU

in Theory and Meaning

Published in print:
1979
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198245858
eISBN:
9780191680908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245858.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter begins by examining Scheffler's suggestion that the problems associated with the theory dependence of meaning can be avoided by switching attention from the senses to the references of ... More


Non‐Teleological Explanations of Actions

G. F. Schueler

in Reasons and Purposes: Human Rationality and the Teleological Explanation of Action

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199250370
eISBN:
9780191598364
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250375.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

There are well‐known arguments in favour of the idea that explanations of actions are at bottom non‐teleological. Michael Smith's ‘direction‐of‐fit’ argument entails this, and both Davidson and ... More


Teleological Explanations of Actions

G. F. Schueler

in Reasons and Purposes: Human Rationality and the Teleological Explanation of Action

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199250370
eISBN:
9780191598364
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250375.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

It is argued here that reference to the agent's purpose or purposes is essential to action explanations and that in fact the belief‐desire theory presupposes such purposes in any case. Action ... More


The Theory of Knowledge and Theory of Justified Belief

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter returns to Gettier's article, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” and considers its impact on the theory of knowledge and the theory of justified belief. It first discusses the ... More


Perception and intermediaries

Kathrin Glüer

in Donald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the Mental

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199697519
eISBN:
9780191742316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697519.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind

Davidson famously held that only beliefs provide reasons for belief. Perceptual experiences, he claimed, are not even propositional attitudes, and thus are doubly disqualified from being ... More


Development

Ian Ker

in John Henry Newman: A Biography

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199569106
eISBN:
9780191702044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569106.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

John Henry Newman turned his thoughts to the obstacles of the development of doctrine before the end of 1842. He devoted the last of the university sermons in preparation for his “best book”. The ... More


Iterated Belief Revision

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Knowledge and Conditionals: Essays on the Structure of Inquiry

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198810346
eISBN:
9780191847332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810346.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A discussion of the problem of extending the basic AGM belief revision theory to iterated belief revision: the problem of formulating rules, not only for revising a basic belief state in response to ... More


The Gettier Case and Intuition

Jessica Brown

in Explaining Knowledge: New Essays on the Gettier Problem

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198724551
eISBN:
9780191840142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724551.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is standard to describe philosophers as appealing to intuitions about cases as evidence for or against philosophical theories. However, the method of appealing to intuitions about cases has been ... More


Looks, Reasons, and Experiences

Kathrin Glüer

in Does Perception Have Content?

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199756018
eISBN:
9780199395255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756018.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

According to the phenomenal belief account, perceptual experiences are a kind of belief. They have contents of a certain form: They ascribe ‘phenomenal’ properties to ordinary material objects, ... More


Other Arguments from ‘Look’

Berit Brogaard

in Seeing and Saying: The Language of Perception and the Representational View of Experience

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190495251
eISBN:
9780190495275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190495251.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

The notion of phenomenal look has been invoked in various contexts to argue for a range of philosophical positions. Chisholm appealed to his non-comparative looks to argue for the theory of ... More


Illusory Looks

Kathrin Glüer

in Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780190946302
eISBN:
9780190946333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190946302.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

One debate the Pyrrhonian skeptics had with the Epicureans concerned the relation between sense perceptions and beliefs. The debate centers on the Epicurean claim that all perceptions are true, a ... More


Strategic Development: Trudging up the Staircase or Swimming with the Tide?

Robert S. Siegler

in Emerging Minds: The Process of Change in Children’s Thinking

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195077872
eISBN:
9780197561379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195077872.003.0007
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

As described in the previous chapter, children’s thinking is highly variable. The present chapter focuses on implications of this variability for understanding development. Thinking about a pair of ... More


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