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Pharmacology of emotion, reward, and addiction; the basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses dopamine and reward. Addiction is explained: amphetamine, cocaine, and heroin work by activating the ventral striatum and they tap into a system normally involved in ... More


Reward- and punishment-related learning; emotion and motivation

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter details associative processes involved in reward- and punishment-related learning. It also covers Pavlovian or classical conditioning; representations in the brain of primary reinforcers ... More


Pharmacology of emotion, reward, and addiction; the basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion and Decision-making Explained

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199659890
eISBN:
9780191772078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659890.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

The functions of dopamine in reward, reward prediction error, saliency, and addiction are described. Then the functions are described of the basal ganglia, which provide one output system for ... More


Motor systems: cerebellum and basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls and Alessandro Treves

in Neural Networks and Brain Function

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524328
eISBN:
9780191724466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524328.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter examines the cerebellum and basal ganglia, two non-neocortical brain systems involved in different aspects of the control of movement. The cerebellum has a remarkably regular neural ... More


 Rules through Recursion: How Interactions between the Frontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia May Build Abstract, Complex Rules from Concrete, Simple Ones

Earl K. Miller and Timothy J. Buschman

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The understanding of abstract rules is necessary for the development of goal‐directed behavior, and generally has been linked to prefrontal function. However, this chapter puts forward the theory ... More


Structure and Function of Brain Systems for Conscious and Nonconscious Representation

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

in The Brain's Representational Power: On Consciousness and the Integration of Modalities

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029315
eISBN:
9780262330121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029315.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Given the limitations of current models, this chapter takes us back to the structure and functioning of brain regions themselves, focussing first on on systems considered important for understanding ... More


Motor Control, Speech, and the Evolution of Human Language

Philip Lieberman

in Language Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199244843
eISBN:
9780191715167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199244843.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter emphasises the importance of speech production in language evolution. A wide range of neuropsychological and neurophysiological data relevant to explaining the evolution of language are ... More


The neurobiology of categorization

F. Gregory Ashby and Matthew J. Crossley

in The Making of Human Concepts

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199549221
eISBN:
9780191724152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549221.003.05
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Categorization is the act of responding differently to objects or events in separate classes or categories. It is a vitally important skill that allows us to approach friends and escape foes, to find ... More


Neurophysiological Mechanisms

Mark L. Latash

in Synergy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333169
eISBN:
9780199864195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

The seventh part of this book deals with possible neurophysiological mechanisms involved in motor synergies. It starts with a discussion of the structure-function controversy in neurophysiology. ... More


The Adaptive Control of Thought

John R. Anderson

in How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195324259
eISBN:
9780199786671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324259.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

The entire cerebral cortex projects down to the basal ganglia that plays an important role in coordinating cognition. These structures serve as the repository for our procedural knowledge. They have ... More


Neuronal Activity in Motor Cortex and Related Areas

Lee E. Miller and Nicholas Hatsopoulos

in Brain–Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195388855
eISBN:
9780199932689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388855.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter is organized into six sections. The first four discuss the anatomy and functional roles of the brain areas that are most relevant to the development of brain-computer interface ... More


Parallel architectures of the basal ganglia-collicular relationships

Gilles Chevalier and Jean-Michel Deniau

in Multisensory Control of Movement

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547853
eISBN:
9780191724268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547853.003.0102
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter discusses the parallel architectures of the basal ganglia and collicular, and their relationship. The striatum, the main entrance portal for inputs to the subcortical system, funnels ... More


Fixed Gaze and Eye-Head Coordination in Basal Ganglia Diseases (Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Chorea, and Pallidum Necrosis)

Didier Bazalgette, Maurice Zattara, Nguyen Bathien, and Pierre Rondot

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0112
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The role of the basal ganglia in eye-head coordination has been studied using neurophysiologic and mathematical tools. The authors tried to answer the questions: (1) How do normal subjects organize ... More


Diseases of the nervous system

Fabrizio Benedetti

in Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Besides pain, Parkinson's disease represents an excellent model to study the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo effect. The placebo effect in Parkinson's disease is mediated by dopamine ... More


Brain Overview

Dana H. Ballard

in Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028615
eISBN:
9780262323819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028615.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

In broad outline the brain’s subsystems can be understood in terms of specific functionality. This chapter introduces these subsystems and provides and overview of how they work together to provide ... More


Noncortical systems in speaking

Doreen Kimura

in Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195054927
eISBN:
9780199872268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195054927.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter shows that functional brain asymmetry for the control of speech production is present in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, but not in the cerebral cortex. It appears to be ... More


Fronto-Basal-Ganglia Circuits for Stopping Action

Ian Greenhouse, Nicole C. Swann, and Adam R. Aron

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the role of the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit in reactive and proactive stopping. It first presents a brief overview of the neural circuit for reactive stopping. It focuses on ... More


Effects of Surgical Treatment

Anna L. Bartels and Klaus L. Leenders

in Imaging in Parkinson’s Disease

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393484
eISBN:
9780199914494
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393484.003.0109
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System, Techniques

This chapter summarizes the contribution of imaging to the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying surgical interventions for PD. Structural imaging studies using MRI techniques have ... More


Human Single Neuron Reward Processing in the Basal Ganglia and Anterior Cingulate

Itzhak Fried

in Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain: Probing Cognition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027205
eISBN:
9780262323994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027205.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Animals are fundamentally governed by rewards. It is a central component of our behavior and the pursuit of which represents the integration of a broad range of cognitive capacities. These functions ... More


Control of Eye Movements

Nigel Daw

in How Vision Works: The Physiological Mechanisms Behind What We See

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199751617
eISBN:
9780199932375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751617.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

There are eye movements to place objects of interest onto the fovea (saccades and vergence), and to keep it there (smooth pursuit, fixation, optokinetic, and vestibular). Signals converge onto the ... More


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