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SLAKING OUR THIRST: The Cholera Bacteria and Its Toxic Viruses

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae and its toxic viruses. The cholera bacterium causes disease and death when the infection results in a continual watery diarrhea that ... More


Virus crystallography

Elizabeth E. Fry, Nicola G. A. Abrescia, and David I. Stuart

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses all aspects of the methodology used to solve isometric virus structures with separate case study examples for two demanding examples, the blue tongue virus core (BTV) and ... More


The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes

Rowland H. Davis

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195154368
eISBN:
9780199893935
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154368.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This book explains the role of simple biological model systems in the growth of molecular biology. Essentially, the whole history of molecular biology is presented here, tracing the work in ... More


The T Bacteriophages

Rowland H. Davis

in The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195154368
eISBN:
9780199893935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154368.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The discovery of bacteriophages initiated a long controversy about their nature. Were they intracellular parasites, a stage of the bacterial life cycle, or symbionts with the bacterium (which might ... More


Temperate Phages and Transduction

Rowland H. Davis

in The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195154368
eISBN:
9780199893935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154368.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter begins with a discussion of studies on temperate bacteriophages. It then describes the discovery of a new and surprising form of genetic recombination called transduction, which led to ... More


A Hidden Legacy: The Life and Work of Esther Zimmer Lederberg

Thomas E. Schindler

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197531679
eISBN:
9780197531709
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197531679.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This biography of Esther Zimmer Lederberg highlights the importance of her research work, which revealed the unique features of bacterial sex, essential for our understanding of molecular biology and ... More


Work efficiently, like bacteriophages with icosahedral symmetry

Susan D'Agostino

in How to Free Your Inner Mathematician: Notes on Mathematics and Life

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198843597
eISBN:
9780191879388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198843597.003.0034
Subject:
Mathematics, Educational Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

“Work efficiently, like bacteriophages with icosahedral symmetry” explains in non-technical terms how an exceptionally small virus that infects bacteria uses its geometry to efficiently encode ... More


Understanding Evolution through the Phages

Samantha E. Forde and Christine M. Jessup

in Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on empirical tests of evolutionary theory using viruses, specifically bacteriophage or phage, beginning by reviewing phage biology and the phage life cycle, and then describing ... More


Pathways

Angela N. H. Creager

in Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226017808
eISBN:
9780226017945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017945.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter follows radioisotopes into the laboratories of biochemists and molecular biologists, where they illuminated metabolic pathways and genetic transmission. Early isotope labelling ... More


Paradigms and Exemplars Meet Biomedicine

Angela N. H. Creager

in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions at Fifty: Reflections on a Science Classic

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226317038
eISBN:
9780226317175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226317175.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This essay argues that model systems in biology function as exemplars in the sense Thomas Kuhn develops in his postscript to second edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, though there ... More


Species boundaries and contemporary evolution

Timothy G. Barraclough

in The Evolutionary Biology of Species

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198749745
eISBN:
9780191814020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198749745.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Much of the evolutionary study of species is retrospective and reconstructs the past processes leading to extant diversity. Yet the nature of species and extent of diversity has profound implications ... More


Ecology of viruses

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199586936
eISBN:
9780191774645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586936.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In addition to grazing, another form of top-down control of microbes is lysis by viruses. There is probably a virus or several for every one organism in the biosphere, but the most common viruses are ... More


“Antibody This, Antibody That, They Weren't Really Much Interested”

Thomas Söderqvist

in Science as Autobiography: The Troubled Life of Niels Jern

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300094411
eISBN:
9780300128710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300094411.003.0012
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter shows Ole Maaloe heading full-speed into a study of bacteriophages, that is, viruses that infect and replicate in bacterial cells, while Niels Jerne was beginning to identify himself as ... More


A Tale of Two Pathogens: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae

Sandy B. Primrose

in Microbiology of Infectious Disease: Integrating Genomics with Natural History

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
May 2022
ISBN:
9780192863843
eISBN:
9780191954559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192863843.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Microbiology

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae are opportunistic pathogens, the former of animals and the latter of plants, that usually enter their hosts through wounds. They share many features ... More


The Anomaly of Bacterial Genetics

Thomas E. Schindler

in A Hidden Legacy: The Life and Work of Esther Zimmer Lederberg

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197531679
eISBN:
9780197531709
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197531679.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter reviews the research that set the stage for Joshua Lederberg’s surprising discovery of bacterial conjugation. While the foundational research of Gregor Mendel and his principles of ... More


Strange Genetics: Bacterial Genes Move Sideways

Thomas E. Schindler

in A Hidden Legacy: The Life and Work of Esther Zimmer Lederberg

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197531679
eISBN:
9780197531709
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197531679.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter relates how, in the 1950s, Esther and Joshua Lederberg and their colleagues uncovered a whole new kind of genetic transfer involving plasmids and viruses. In plants and animals, genetic ... More


Death in Bacteria, Fungi, and Protista

Gary C. Howard

in The Biology of Death: How Dying Shapes Cells, Organisms, and Populations

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780190687724
eISBN:
9780197601433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190687724.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Microorganisms are ubiquitous but easy to ignore. They live in a hostile world. Bacteria are subject to attack by viruses called bacteriophages, and environmental conditions can easily change to be ... More


The Central Importance of E. coli and λ‎ Phage in the New Molecular Biology

Thomas E. Schindler

in A Hidden Legacy: The Life and Work of Esther Zimmer Lederberg

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2021
ISBN:
9780197531679
eISBN:
9780197531709
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197531679.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter considers two of the most important legacies of the Lederbergs’ pioneering work: the discoveries of the model organisms that would dominate molecular biology, E. coli and λ‎ ... More


The Evolution of Templates

John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmáry

in The Major Transitions in Evolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502944
eISBN:
9780191919237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502944.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

In this chapter, we discuss the origin and early evolution of genetic replication. The argument is complex, so we start with a brief outline. Section 4.2 discusses the nature of replication. We ... More


The Chicken and Egg Problem

John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmáry

in The Major Transitions in Evolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502944
eISBN:
9780191919237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502944.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

The most fundamental distinction in biology is between nucleic acids, with their role as carriers of information, and proteins, which generate the phenotype. In existing organisms, nucleic acids ... More


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