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Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The human‐built environment is increasingly being populated by artificial agents that, through artificial intelligence (AI), are capable of acting autonomously. The software controlling these ... More


ENGINEERING MORALITY

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A framework is provided for understanding the trajectory toward increasingly sophisticated artificial moral agents, emphasizing two dimensions: autonomy and sensitivity to morally relevant facts. ... More


Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Is It the End of the World as We Know It . . . Or Will We Be Just Fine?

Michael W. Meier

in Complex Battlespaces: The Law of Armed Conflict and the Dynamics of Modern Warfare

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190915360
eISBN:
9780190915391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190915360.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Over the past decade, there has been a proliferation of remotely piloted aircraft or “drones” being used on the battlefield. Advances in technology are going to continue to drive changes in how ... More


Affective Engineering

Craig Delancey

in Passionate Engines: What Emotions Reveal about the Mind and Artificial Intelligence

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195142716
eISBN:
9780199833153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195142713.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The notion of affective engineering – the attempt to engineer affective systems – is introduced. Shallow affective engineering is defined as the recreation of outward signs or single features of ... More


Engineering, Ethics, and Industry: The Moral Challenges of Lethal Autonomy

George R. Lucas

in Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199926121
eISBN:
9780199345656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199926121.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The essays in this volume deal primarily with moral, legal, and policy issues arising from the use of remotely-piloted drones (RPVs). This essay, by contrast, raises and discusses questions ... More


Otto Loewi and Henry Dale: The Discovery of Neurotransmitters

Stanley Finger

in Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

In the opening decades of the 20th century, there would be new ways of thinking about how neurons communicate with each other and how they stimulate muscles. The earlier idea of a continuous, ... More


Toward the Special Computer Law of Targeting: “Fully Autonomous” Weapons Systems and the Proportionality Test

Masahiro Kurosaki

in Necessity and Proportionality in International Peace and Security Law

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780197537374
eISBN:
9780197537404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197537374.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

One of the implications of fully autonomous weapons systems (AWS) as an independent decision maker in the targeting process is that a human-centered paradigm should never be taken for granted. ... More


Legal Personhood for AI?

Mireille Hildebrandt

in Law for Computer Scientists and Other Folk

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198860877
eISBN:
9780191892936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860877.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter considers legal personhood for artificial agents. It engages with the legal issues of autonomous systems, asking the question whether (and if so, under what conditions) such systems ... More


Governance at the Internet’s Core

Laura Denardis

in The Global War for Internet Governance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780300181357
eISBN:
9780300182118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300181357.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The Internet is made up of interconnected Internet Protocol networks operated by different companies that conjoin bilaterally or at shared exchange points to form the global Internet. This chapter ... More


What Is the Moral Problem with Killer Robots?

Susanne Burri

in Who Should Die?: The Ethics of Killing in War

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190495657
eISBN:
9780190495671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190495657.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

An autonomous weapon system (AWS) is a weapons system that, “once activated, can select and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator” (US Department of Defense directive ... More


Perturbative weak KAM theory

Kaloshin Vadim and Zhang Ke

in Arnold Diffusion for Smooth Systems of Two and a Half Degrees of Freedom: (AMS-208)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691202525
eISBN:
9780691204932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691202525.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter explores perturbation aspects of the weak Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theory. By perturbative weak KAM theory, we mean two things. How do the weak KAM solutions and the Mather, Aubry, ... More


The Civil-Military Implications of Emerging Technology

Risa Brooks

in Reconsidering American Civil-Military Relations: The Military, Society, Politics, and Modern War

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780197535493
eISBN:
9780197535530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197535493.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter argues that adaptation of emerging technology—artificial intelligence (AI), among other forms—will introduce new stresses and tensions in civil-military relations across a variety of ... More


Technological networks

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

An introduction to technological networks and their measurement. The internet is discussed at some length, including a description of its overall structure, methods for measuring it based on ... More


Evolvable technology and innovation

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0253
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines whether principles of biological innovation may apply to technological systems. It shows that an analogue of genotype networks exists in a technological system, that is, in a ... More


The Better Instincts of Humanity: Humanitarian Arguments in Defense of International Arms Control

Natalia Jevglevskaja and Rain Liivoja

in Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780197546048
eISBN:
9780197546079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197546048.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Disagreements about the humanitarian risk-benefit balance of weapons technology are not new. The history of arms control negotiations offers many examples of weaponry that was regarded ‘inhumane’ by ... More


Proposing a Regional Normative Framework for Limiting the Potential for Unintentional or Escalatory Engagements with Increasingly Autonomous Weapon Systems

Austin Wyatt and Jai Galliott

in Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780197546048
eISBN:
9780197546079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197546048.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

While the Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW)-sponsored process has steadily slowed, and occasionally stalled, over the past five years, the pace of technological development in both the ... More


The Mechanization of Art

Paul Brown

in The Mechanical Mind in History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083775
eISBN:
9780262256384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083775.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter presents an idiosyncratic account of the development of “the mechanization of art.” It shows that Norbert Wiener’s and W. Ross Ashby’s ideas were quickly appreciated by a number of ... More


The Robot Dogs of War

Deane-Peter Baker

in Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780197546048
eISBN:
9780197546079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197546048.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The prospect of robotic warriors striding the battlefield has, somewhat unsurprisingly, been shaped by perceptions drawn from science fiction. While illustrative, such comparisons are largely ... More


Understanding AI and Autonomy: Problematizing the Meaningful Human Control Argument against Killer Robots

Tim McFarland and Jai Galliott

in Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780197546048
eISBN:
9780197546079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197546048.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The physical and temporal removal of the human from the decision to use lethal force underpins many of the arguments against the development of autonomous weapons systems. In response to these ... More


The Future of Proportionality

Amichai Cohen and David Zlotogorski

in Proportionality in International Humanitarian Law: Consequences, Precautions, and Procedures

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780197556726
eISBN:
9780197556757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197556726.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The final chapter of the book presents three developments in modern warfare that might affect the way the principle of proportionality will be applied in the future. The first is the development of ... More


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