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Italy and the IGC: Negotiating External Discipline, Avoiding Exclusion, 1990–1991

Kenneth Dyson and Kevin Featherstone

in The Road To Maastricht: Negotiating Economic and Monetary Union

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296386
eISBN:
9780191599125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829638X.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Italy's maximalist negotiating positions—of a binding timetable, strong central institutions for the transition, and flexible entry conditions—were soon confronted in 1991 by the realization of a ... More


Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will

John Baer, James C. Kaufman, and Roy F. Baumeister (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195189636
eISBN:
9780199868605
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Do people have free will, or is universal belief an illusion? If free will is more than an illusion, what kind of free will do people have? How can free will influence behavior? Can free will be ... More


Free Will Is Un-natural

John A Bargh

in Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195189636
eISBN:
9780199868605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Much current research in social psychology has demonstrated unconscious impulses or guides to situationally appropriate behavior. These come from immediate and automatic evaluative, motivational, and ... More


 Abstraction of Mental Representations: Theoretical Considerations and Neuroscientific Evidence

Kalina Christoff and Kamyar Keramatian

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Humans are unique in being able to follow rules at a high order of abstraction—or complex systems of abstract rules that are themselves related in an abstract way. This chapter presents findings that ... More


A Cartesian Case for Circulation

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0068
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter focuses on the contributions of Descartes (1596–1650), an unconditional centralist who could imagine a healthy, strong organism only as one ruled by a central power. Thomas Fuchs on ... More


Attention and long-term memory

Nelson Cowan

in Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the importance of attention for long-term memory encoding and retrieval. Some attention is probably needed to perceive items adequately. Beyond that, one can distinguish ... More


Implicit Control of Stereotype Activation

Gordon B. Moskowitz and Peizhong Li

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Control typically is conceived of as a set of conscious responses to an activated goal and the subsequent attempts at goal pursuit. Control includes the self-regulatory steps one initiates by ... More


Assessing Individual Differences in Achievement Motivation with the Implicit Association Test: Predictive Validity of a Chronometric Measure of the Self-Concept “Me = Successful”

Joachim C. Brunstein and Clemens H. Schmitt

in Implicit Motives

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335156
eISBN:
9780199776955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335156.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores potential links between thematic and chronometric methods of measuring implicit motives. It begins with a brief overview of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in thematic ... More


On the Automaticity of Nationalist Ideology: The Case of the USA

Melissa J. Ferguson, Travis J. Carter, and Ran R. Hassin

in Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195320916
eISBN:
9780199869541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320916.003.003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

How do people typically form opinions and make choices about national matters? What factors influence how people behave in the political realm? The majority of work on these questions in psychology ... More


Explicit and Implicit Memories

Sharon B. Berlin

in Clinical Social Work Practice: A Cognitive-Integrative Perspective

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195110371
eISBN:
9780199865680
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110371.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

This chapter continues the theoretical discussion by focusing on the role of explicit and implicit (or conscious and nonconscious) memory in creating meaning. It reviews explanations of how the mind ... More


Imaginative Contagion

Tamar Szabó Gendler

in Intuition, Imagination, and Philosophical Methodology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199589760
eISBN:
9780191595486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589760.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents and discusses a number of cases of imaginative contagion: cases where merely imagining or pretending P has effects that we would expect only believing or perceiving P to have. ... More


How to Define and Examine Implicit Processes?

Jan De Houwer and Agnes Moors

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Research on implicit processes has become increasingly popular during the past two decades. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to clarifying the meaning of the concept implicit. ... More


Character

Maria W. Merritt, John M. Doris, and Gilbert Harman

in The Moral Psychology Handbook

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199582143
eISBN:
9780191594496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199582143.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Moral psychology is central to modern virtue ethics, whose proponents have claimed greater psychological realism as a theoretical advantage. Yet much empirical research in personality and social ... More


Compensatory Automaticity: Unconscious Volition Is Not an Oxymoron

Jack Glaser and John F. Kihlstrom

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The concept of automaticity, long central in cognitive psychology, has come to occupy an important place in social psychology as well. It appears that unconscious vigilance for bias can lead to ... More


From Body Perception to Action Preparation:: A Distributed Neural System for Viewing Bodily Expressions of Emotion

Beatrice de Gelder

in People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195393705
eISBN:
9780199979271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Current models of emotion perception are almost exclusively based on studies of facial expressions. This chapter reviews evidence from psychophysiological, neurophysiological, computational, and ... More


The Control of the Unwanted

Peter M. Gollwitzer, Ute C. Boyer, and Kathleen C. McCulloch

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Intentions to do more good and less bad are reliably associated with actual efforts in the intended directions. However, the link between intention and behavior is modest, largely due to the fact ... More


Going Beyond the Motivation Given: Self-Control and Situational Control Over Behavior

Yaacov Trope and Ayelet Fishbach

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Inspired by Kurt Lewin's (1935) field theory, social psychologists have sought to demonstrate that a wide range of human behavior, socially desirable as well as undesirable, is under the control of ... More


Thought in Action: Expertise and the Conscious Mind

Barbara Gail Montero

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780199596775
eISBN:
9780191822308
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596775.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

How does thinking affect doing? There is a widely held view—both in academia and in the popular press—that thinking about what you are doing as you are doing it, hinders performance. Once you have ... More


The Implicit Mind: Cognitive Architecture, the Self, and Ethics

Michael Brownstein

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780190633721
eISBN:
9780190633752
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190633721.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

Heroes are often admired for their ability to act without having “one thought too many,” as Bernard Williams put it. Likewise, the unhesitating decisions of masterful athletes and artists are part of ... More


Negligence

Jennifer K. Robbennolt and Valerie P. Hans

in The Psychology of Tort Law

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780814724941
eISBN:
9780814724712
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814724941.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores the “reasonable person” who sits at the heart of tort law and negligence. Psychology has important implications for understanding this central figure. Psychological research ... More


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