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Ontogeny, Autism, Empathy, and Evolution

Alvin I. Goldman

in Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195138924
eISBN:
9780199786480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138929.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A wide variety of well-studied phenomena associated with mindreading are surveyed to probe the consistency of what is known about them with our version of simulation theory. These phenomena include ... More


Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious

Arthur S. Reber

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195106589
eISBN:
9780199871698
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195106589.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The book is an extended essay on implicit learning, a topic that emerged in recent years as an important but previously overlooked process. Implicit learning is learning that takes place independent ... More


Free Will and the Control of Action

Henry L Roediger, III, Michael K Goode, and Franklin M Zaromb

in Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195189636
eISBN:
9780199868605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Empirical study of free will is directly related to the study of the control of human behavior. This chapter discusses four cognitive research paradigms, as well as their implications for the study ... More


Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will

John Baer, James C. Kaufman, and Roy F. Baumeister (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195189636
eISBN:
9780199868605
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Do people have free will, or is universal belief an illusion? If free will is more than an illusion, what kind of free will do people have? How can free will influence behavior? Can free will be ... More


Foundations of Mind: Origins of Conceptual Thought

Jean Matter Mandler

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195311839
eISBN:
9780199786770
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311839.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This book presents a new theory of cognitive development in infancy, focusing on the processes through which perceptual information is transformed into concepts. Drawing on extensive research, the ... More


Autonomy and Control in Children’s Interactions with Imaginary Companions

MARJORIE TAYLOR, STEPHANIE M. CARLSON, and ALISON B. SHAWBER

in Imaginative Minds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264195
eISBN:
9780191734540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264195.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses children’s private role play with imaginary companions and playmates which the children created and interacted with and/or talked about regularly. Although imaginary companions ... More


Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Neuroergonomics

Shimin Fu and Raja Parasuraman

in Neuroergonomics: The brain at work

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195177619
eISBN:
9780199864683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177619.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter describes how event-related potentials (ERPs) can be recorded and analyzed, and discusses research on a number of ERP components, focusing on those that are particularly relevant to ... More


An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat

Toni Schmader and Sian Beilock

in Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732449
eISBN:
9780199918508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The theory of stereotype threat has captivated those who have long struggled to understand why some groups of people seem to systematically underperform in certain domains. But although early ... More


Shallow Cues With Deep Effects: Trait Judgments From Faces and Voting Decisions

Crystal C. Hall, Amir Goren, Shelly Chaiken, and Alexander Todorov

in The Political Psychology of Democratic Citizenship

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195335453
eISBN:
9780199893904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335453.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the impact of rapid automatic processes in political decision making. Specifically, using a dual-process framework, it argues that individuals assess candidate competence on the ... More


Aberrant Attentional Processes in Schizophrenia as Reflected in Latent Inhibition Data

Robert E. Lubow

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0048
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Latent inhibition (LI) is demonstrated when a previously unattended stimulus is less effective in a new learning situation than a novel stimulus. Since LI is reduced by dopamine agonists and ... More


Beyond the Literal

Sam Glucksberg

in Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195111095
eISBN:
9780199872107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195111095.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the assumption that literal meanings are functionally primary: are they, as opposed to figurative meanings, processed automatically, and are they processed more quickly? ... More


The Glimpsed World: Unintended Communication and Unintended Perception

Y. Susan Choi, Heather M. Gray, and Nalini Ambady

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Evidence suggests that people are often surprisingly accurate when making judgments of others based on mere glimpses. In particular, nonverbal channels of communication—including facial displays, ... More


Attention Goes Home: Support for Aging Adults

Arthur D. Fisk and Wendy A. Rogers

in Attention: From Theory to Practice

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305722
eISBN:
9780199847723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305722.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Older adults, like younger adults, engage in a variety of activities every day. These activities can be grouped into three: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and ... More


Integrating Cognitive Systems: The COGENT Approach

Richard P. Cooper

in Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195189193
eISBN:
9780199847457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189193.003.0029
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter describes COGENT (cognitive objects in a graphical environment), a graphical object-oriented system for the development and exploration of computational models. COGENT builds on the box ... More


Early Childhood Is Where Many Adult Automatic Processes Are Born

John A. Bargh

in Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199890712
eISBN:
9780199332779
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890712.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Traditionally, the development of automatic processes has been understood in terms of skill acquisition, processes that start out as conscious and intentional, and only after considerable experience ... More


Nonintentional Similarity Processing

Arthur B. Markman and Dedre Geniner

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Similarity is a compelling part of everyday experience. In the visual world, objects that are similar in shape or color may seem to leap to our attention. In conceptual processing, we have an ... More


Using Evolutionary Thinking to Cut Across Disciplines: The Example of the Argumentative Theory of Reasoning

Hugo Mercier

in Comparative Decision Making

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199856800
eISBN:
9780199301508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199856800.003.0027
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The frequent flaws in human reasoning are well documented. This chapter seeks to provide a general explanation based on the role of argumentation both in contemporary society and during the ... More


Social Roles that Matter

Ron Mallon

in The Construction of Human Kinds

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780198755678
eISBN:
9780191816796
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198755678.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Beginning with an account of social roles, Mallon sketches a set of causal pathways that, if realized, could make category constructionist explanations of causally powerful kinds true and whose ... More


Dynamic Complexity Theory: Eclipsed by a Revolution

Delroy L. Paulhus

in Most Underappreciated: 50 Prominent Social Psychologists Describe Their Most Unloved Work

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199778188
eISBN:
9780190256043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199778188.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Delroy L. Paulhus describes his most underappreciated work: his dynamic complexity theory. He explains how ideas on cognitive complexity inspired him to develop a broader theory of personality, ... More


Conclusion: Born to Know

Hilary Kornblith

in Scientific Epistemology: An Introduction

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780197609552
eISBN:
9780197609590
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197609552.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter draws out some epistemological lessons that have emerged from the preceding chapters. An evolutionary account is offered in answer to the question of how knowledge is possible. We are ... More


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